The physical term potential well is a descriptive name for the region around a local minimum of the potential distribution of a system. One uses the idea of a body in a gravitational field, e.g. B. that of the earth. If the body lies in a pot, it can only leave it if it is lifted above the edge of the pot by supplying the appropriate amount of energy.
The limit energy required to leave a potential well is sharply defined in classical physics . For objects that have to be described with quantum mechanics , however, this no longer applies: atomic particles, even if they have less energy than the energy required to leave the pot, have a certain probability of being outside the potential pot (see tunnel effect ).
A potential mountain is the opposite of a potential well, i.e. the region around a local maximum of the potential distribution.
- Solution of the harmonic oscillator, the potential box and the hydrogen atom (PDF file; 4.26 MB)
- Standing waves and energy levels in the potential well (Java applet; 1.478 kB)