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SPSS An IBM Company logo.svg
Logo SPSS.png
Basic data

developer IBM
Publishing year 1968
Current  version IBM SPSS Statistics 27
(June 17, 2020)
operating system Microsoft Windows , Mac OS X , GNU / Linux (since version 16)
programming language Java
category Statistics software
License proprietary
German speaking Yes

SPSS is a trademark of the software company IBM , under which statistics and analysis software is developed and sold. The most important product of the brand is the statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics , which was marketed between 2009 and 2010 under the name PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare).


The company SPSS Inc. was established in 1968 with the development of the first version of the program of the same name. The company was founded at Stanford University in the United States by Norman H. Nie , C. Hadlai (Tex) Hull and Dale Bent . The name SPSS was originally an abbreviation for the name Statistical Package for the Social Sciences . At that time the statistical data was saved on punch cards, later on mainframe disks. In 1983 the first PC version was developed. In the meantime, SPSS stood for Superior Performing Software System .

Soon the term SPSS Inc. was used for the company and SPSS only for the original product, as the functions of the software had evolved over the years and could no longer be abbreviated in this way. SPSS Inc. was acquired by IBM in 2009 .


The IBM SPSS Statistics software is a modular program package for statistical analysis of data. The basic module enables basic data management and extensive statistical and graphic data analyzes with the most common statistical methods. For special applications, such as conjoint or time series analysis , there are additional modules that build on the basic module. AMOS has established itself as an extension for the implementation of structural equation models . In addition, the company SPSS offers other software products such as the IBM SPSS Modeler (formerly Clementine) for applications in the area of data mining or decision trees , formerly CHAID and AnswerTree , which can be used as stand-alone programs independently of the SPSS base module.

The program family is often used in the scientific field, but is also used in companies, for example in market research . Many functions are accessible via the graphical user interface or can be implemented with the proprietary 4GL syntax. Performing analyzes using the syntax has the advantages that repetitive tasks can be carried out more quickly and analyzes can be carried out again more easily if the data changes. In addition, some functions are only available via the syntax.

See also


  • Felix Brosius: SPSS for dummies . Wiley-VCH, 2007, ISBN 978-3-527-70269-5 .
  • Felix Brosius: SPSS 16 . MITP-Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8266-5910-2 .
  • Felix Brosius: SPSS programming: Efficient data management and automation with SPSS syntax . MITP-Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8266-5909-6 .
  • Achim Bühl: SPSS 23 . Pearson Studium, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-86894-297-2 .
  • Andy Field : Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics . 4th edition. Sage Publications, London 2013, ISBN 978-1-4462-4918-5 ( materials ).
  • Jürgen Janssen, Wilfried Laatz: Statistical data analysis with SPSS for Windows. 5th, revised and expanded edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-540-23930-8 .
  • Raynald Levesque: SPSS Programming and Data Management. 2nd Edition. SPSS, 2005, ISBN 1-56827-355-X . ( pdf , 390 pages, 3.7 MB)
  • Marko Sarstedt, Tobias Schütz, Sascha Raithel: IBM SPSS Syntax. An application-oriented introduction. 2nd Edition. Vahlen, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-8006-3781-2 .
  • CFG Schendera: Cluster analysis with SPSS. Oldenbourg, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-486-58691-6 .
  • CFG Schendera: Regression analysis with SPSS. Oldenbourg, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58692-3 .
  • CFG Schendera: data quality with SPSS. Oldenbourg, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58214-7 .
  • CFG Schendera: Data Management with SPSS - A practical introduction to programming with SPSS. Springer, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-25824-8 .
  • Reinhard Wittenberg, Hans Cramer, Basha Vicari: Data analysis with IBM SPSS Statistics. A syntax-oriented introduction. (= UTB. 4225). UVK / UTB, Konstanz 2014, ISBN 978-3-8252-4225-1 .

Web links

Commons : SPSS  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ IBM completes acquisition of SPSS Inc. In: IBM Press room. IBM, October 2, 2009, accessed February 7, 2011 .