A jumping mat is a leap rescue equipment of the fire department . It is used in an emergency when people are about to jump - the classic case here is jumping out of the window of a burning house - or are in danger of falling for other reasons. The jumping mat used by the fire brigade in Germany is standardized according to DIN 14151-1: 2004-08 and DIN 14151-2: 2004-08. A jumping sheet is only used when there is no other way to save the person concerned from the dangerous situation, i. H. if, for example, it is not possible to use a turntable ladder or portable ladders , and alternative escape routes are available.
Jumping mats can be used with and without support, that is, either only held by fire fighters or additionally supported by an air cushion underneath.
Jump mat without support
The so-called “jumping mat 8 without support” consists of stable textile fabric, mostly polyester , previously made of canvas . Straps are sewn onto the underside of the jumping mat to reinforce the construction. It is octagonal with sides of unequal length (almost square), has a size of 3.5 m × 3.5 m and has a thick tether with handle loops on the edge. If necessary, the area can be reduced to 3 m × 3 m using a second tether. The jumping sheet without support weighs around 18 kg.
For the use of the jumping mat, at least 16 fire brigade members are required, who have to absorb the entire impact of the body of the person to be rescued. They stand in a circle around the jumping sheet near the place of action, unfold it and stretch it with arms drawn to the side next to the body (the rope of the jumping sheet is roughly at the height of the neck). The operations leader or group or platoon leader then directs the fire fighters to the suspected jump point of the person to be rescued. The fire brigade members facing the chief of operations (they have eye contact with him) follow his instructions, the rest of the team follows these changes in position. Once the jump point is reached, the jumping sheet is stretched, while the team steps forward with the lower body as far as possible under the sheet in order to shift the body weight backwards. In this way, the jumping mat is pulled close to the body with bent arms. If the person jumps, the chief of operations announces this to the team with an order. The team then looks up to be able to correct the position of the jumping mat if necessary. When the command of the operations leader is given, the jumping mat is stretched with all available force in order to prevent the person to be rescued from “punching through”.
Jumping beds without support are rarely used in practice, even if TV and cinema films suggest otherwise, and most fire departments are not even equipped with jumping sheets. The use of jumping sheets involves a lot of risks and difficulties, which is why nowadays in an emergency the more modern jumping pad or rarely a so-called “ jumping sheet with support ” is used.
The maximum rescue height for a jumping mat without support is 8 meters.
In order to be able to use a jumping mat, at least 16 fire brigade members are required. Nowadays, however, there is hardly any mission that has so many free personnel available. The correct placement of the firefighters with the jumping mat is also difficult, as z. For example, a command “jumping sheet one meter to the right!” Can only be followed with difficulty by 16 firefighters standing in a circle. The different heights of the firefighters can also pose a problem when handling the jumping mat. There is also the risk that the person to be rescued will miss the jumping sheet, which also means a considerable risk of injury for the emergency services involved. Even if the jumping person hits the jumping sheet, the force of the body impact often causes injuries in the shoulder and arm area of the firefighters. If the arms are incorrectly bent in front of the chest, the force of the jump can even cause injuries in this area. The risk of injury to the jumping person is also relatively high.
Jump mat with support
The “jumping mat 8 with support” consists of a firm, flexible ceiling and floor panel made of synthetic fiber. At the edge the two plates are connected with a strip, so that the device forms a hollow body. The jump rescuer has a diameter of 3.5 meters, whereby the collecting area can be either round, hexagonal or octagonal. Inside the device there are vertical partitions that divide the cavity into 16 air chambers. Each of these air chambers is provided with a valve on the base plate through which air can quickly flow into the cavity when the cloth is lifted up. At the same time, the valves prevent the air from escaping from the chambers too quickly. The weight of the jumping mat with support depends on the model, with a hexagonal model it can be 26 kg, for example.
The jumping bed with support is operated by six fire brigade members. Here, the impact force of the jumping person is not absorbed by the team, but by the air cushions of the device.
The jumping sheet with support is unfolded near the jumping-off point. The six emergency services grab the jumping sheet by the handles on the cover plate, the base plate is fixed to the floor using the attached foot straps. Now the air chambers are inflated with air by evenly lifting the cover plate, this takes around 15 seconds. The device is then ready for use and is brought into position by the team on the instructions of the head of operations. The emergency services, who are in direct eye contact with the chief of operations, follow his instructions, and the rest of the team follows the changes in position of these firefighters. Once the device is in position, the emergency services continue to inflate it until the actual take-off to ensure that there is enough air in the device. If the person jumps, the head of operations announces this by means of a command, but the device does not have to be held or pulled apart as with the jumping sheet; this is irrelevant for the function of the jumping sheet with support. As a rule, the handles are even released by the emergency services in order to avoid the handles being torn from them when the person to be rescued hits them or being thrown into the device themselves.
The maximum rescue height for the jumping mat with support is 8 meters.
Compared to the use of a jumping sheet without support, the use of a jumping sheet with support is associated with a considerably lower risk of injury for both the fire fighters and the rescued person. Only a jump pad offers more safety .
- Lothar Schott, Manfred Ritter: Fire Brigade Basic Course FwDV 2 . Wenzel-Verlag, Marburg 2006, ISBN 3-88293-025-X , p. 74,150 .