Teatr Wielki (Warsaw)
|Teatr Wielki Warsaw|
|construction time||1825-1833; 1952-1965|
|Building volume||approx. 500,000 m³|
|Building area||approx. 2 ha|
|Gross floor area||approx. 90,000 m²|
|Facade width||196 m|
|Height of the stage tower||45 m|
|Main stage (Moniuszko Hall)|
|Portal height||up to 9.8 m|
|Portal width||up to 17.4 m|
|Stage width||36.5 m|
|Stage height||34.4 m|
|Stage depth (incl. Front stage)||57 m|
|Stage area (incl. Front stage)||approx. 1,150 m²|
|Stage area (including back and side stages)||approx. 2,500 m²|
|Height of the lower stage||12.3 m|
|Furnishing||Revolving platform mounted on a carriage, approx. 22 m|
|National Theater (Bogusławski Hall)|
|Portal height||8 m|
|Portal width||12.5 m|
|Stage depth||approx. 25 m|
|Stage area||390 m²|
|Furnishing||• 4 lifting platforms (14 × 3 m), which can move 4.5 m above or below stage level and can be tilted to inclines
• 2 person recesses (2 × 1 m)
• 2 rotating platforms (11.8 and 5 m diameter)
• Orchestra pit liftable at stage level
|Chamber stage (Emil Młynarski Hall)|
The Teatr Wielki was built in the years 1825–1833 according to plans by the Italian architect Antonio Corazzi and was originally to be given the name 'National Theater' (Teatr Narodowy) . After the suppression of the November uprising of 1830, this name had to be dispensed with in favor of the one still in use today. The house was inaugurated on February 24, 1833 with a performance of Rossini's Il barbiere di Siviglia . In the period up to the Second World War , it was the site of almost all world premieres of Polish operas and ballets , such as the works of Moniuszko and Szymanowski . In 1836 the Teatr Rozmaitości was built in the right wing of the building , a theater with 800 seats for spoken theater performances, which in 1924 became the main stage of the National Theater.
The building was destroyed by the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War, with the exception of remains of the facade. In the post-war years, the national opera and theater used various alternative quarters. In 1949, theater operations could be resumed in the restored National Theater. A competition was held in 1951 for the new building of the National Opera, which was won by the architect Bohdan Pniewski. A new building was erected under the technical direction of Arnold Szyfman, which was inaugurated on November 19, 1965. The new auditorium and the stage for the opera were placed behind the original building, which made space for a gigantic stage 50 m high and 54 m deep. The ballrooms behind the wings of the facade became the theater museum, a chamber stage was housed under the roof of the original stage tower, including the extremely spacious foyer of the opera. In addition, extensive rooms for rehearsals as well as the 28 different workshops were built, including an orchestra rehearsal room under the auditorium, ballet hall and choir room, and a circular painter's hall above the auditorium.
In March 1985, the National Theater in the western wing burned down. The reconstruction lasted almost 12 years and ended after the political change in 1996, on November 19, 1997 it was reopened with Noc listopadowa ('November Night ') by Stanisław Wyspiański . In the same year, the new Jabłonowski Palace was also completed on the opposite side of the square .
In 2002 the main facade of the theater building was crowned with a bronze quadriga . The Quadriga was planned by Antonio Corazzi in the 19th century, but was not realized until the 21st century.
The Polish National Opera plays operas and ballet with around 1,000 employees. It maintains the 102-member orchestra of the National Opera , a 97-member opera choir, the Alla Polacca children's choir and a ballet company with around 80 dancers. The management of the house is in the hands of the general director Waldemar Dąbrowski , the chief conductor Evgeny Volynsky and the artistic director Mariusz Treliński .
The National Theater, which with around 65 actors plays on the main stage in Teatr Wielki as well as smaller venues outside the house, is under the artistic direction of Jan Englert .
The museum's collection, which is open during the day and also during opera performances, has around 200,000 pieces. In addition to paintings, sculptures, photos, design drawings and models, costumes, programs and posters, it also archives the legacy of numerous famous singers, dancers, actors and stage designers, for example Jan Kiepura and Helena Modrzejewska .
- Opera Narodowa. Almanac 2001. Warsaw 2001, ISBN 83-86727-58-6 .
- www.teatrwielki.pl - Homepage of Opera Narodowa (Polish, English)
- www.narodowy.pl - Homepage of Teatr Narodowy (Polish, English)
- Polish National Opera at Google Cultural Institute