|Crawford , 1909|
The Vanhorniidae are a small family of hymenoptera. One species, Vanhornia leileri Hedqvist, lives in Central Europe .
They are small wasps with a body length of 6 to 7 millimeters. The most striking feature is the construction of the female ovipositor . This is long and thin and mostly exposed. It emerges at the end of the abdomen and, in the resting position, is inserted forward into a groove on the abdomen of the abdomen . Since it is longer than this (it reaches body length), its tip curves upwards around the base of the abdomen and stands up in a free loop between the wings. Further characteristics are: The head capsule is rounded with round temples, the mandibles are toothed on the outside (exodont). The thread-like antennae insert very low on the head, just above the clypeus , they have 13 segments. The front section of the trunk (prothorax) is divided into two parts, the front section is triangularly elongated towards the front in a side view, and the head is thereby constricted in the shape of a neck. The trunk is heavily sclerotized with distinctive point pits, each with a small hair. The clear wings have a large wing mark ( pterostigma ). In the free abdomen, the first segment is much longer than all the others, the first four segments are fused into a compact, hard structure ("carapace"). The Tergites six to eight are retracted telescopically into the abdomen end in both sexes.
Way of life
Like all related species, the larvae are parasitoids , they parasitize in beetle larvae. Vanhornia eucnemidarum, which is widespread in North America, parasitizes the wood-dwelling larvae of Isorhipis ruficornis , family Eucnemidae, in dead maple trees. The European Vanhornia leileri also has a eucnemid , Hypocoelus cariniceps , as host . After the few observations, they quickly move the females close to the ground using a combination of running and short flights. The long, flexible laying drill is not suitable for drilling through hard wood. Presumably, it is inserted into ducts and cavities in the manner of a probe.
The Vanhorniidae live in North America, East Asia, with one species also in Europe ( Holarctic distribution). The European Vanhornia leileri was first described from Sweden , it has since been found in Switzerland and Germany.
Taxonomy, systematics, phylogeny
The Vanhorniidae were named by the first describer James C. Crawford in honor of RW van Horn, who discovered the animals.
The family comprises two or three genera, depending on the scientific understanding. The genus Heloseriphus with the species H.castor and H.pollux , which has been described from Canada, was originally placed in this family, but is now mostly included in the Proctotrupidae . This leaves only two genera and three species:
- Vanhornia eucnemidarum . North America, also found in Korea. Type species of the genus
- Vanhornia leileri . Europe
- Sinicivanhornia quizhouensis . China
Vanhorniidae are considered to be a species-poor relic group with a basal position within the Proctotrupoidea, possibly the sister group of the Proctotrupidae. Fossils assigned to this family have not been found.
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