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Class : Insects (Insecta)
Order : Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera)
Subordination : Waist Wasps (Apocrita)
Superfamily : Wasps (Proctotrupoidea)
Family : Vanhorniidae
Scientific name
Crawford , 1909

The Vanhorniidae are a small family of hymenoptera. One species, Vanhornia leileri Hedqvist, lives in Central Europe .


They are small wasps with a body length of 6 to 7 millimeters. The most striking feature is the construction of the female ovipositor . This is long and thin and mostly exposed. It emerges at the end of the abdomen and, in the resting position, is inserted forward into a groove on the abdomen of the abdomen . Since it is longer than this (it reaches body length), its tip curves upwards around the base of the abdomen and stands up in a free loop between the wings. Further characteristics are: The head capsule is rounded with round temples, the mandibles are toothed on the outside (exodont). The thread-like antennae insert very low on the head, just above the clypeus , they have 13 segments. The front section of the trunk (prothorax) is divided into two parts, the front section is triangularly elongated towards the front in a side view, and the head is thereby constricted in the shape of a neck. The trunk is heavily sclerotized with distinctive point pits, each with a small hair. The clear wings have a large wing mark ( pterostigma ). In the free abdomen, the first segment is much longer than all the others, the first four segments are fused into a compact, hard structure ("carapace"). The Tergites six to eight are retracted telescopically into the abdomen end in both sexes.

Way of life

Like all related species, the larvae are parasitoids , they parasitize in beetle larvae. Vanhornia eucnemidarum, which is widespread in North America, parasitizes the wood-dwelling larvae of Isorhipis ruficornis , family Eucnemidae, in dead maple trees. The European Vanhornia leileri also has a eucnemid , Hypocoelus cariniceps , as host . After the few observations, they quickly move the females close to the ground using a combination of running and short flights. The long, flexible laying drill is not suitable for drilling through hard wood. Presumably, it is inserted into ducts and cavities in the manner of a probe.


The Vanhorniidae live in North America, East Asia, with one species also in Europe ( Holarctic distribution). The European Vanhornia leileri was first described from Sweden , it has since been found in Switzerland and Germany.

Taxonomy, systematics, phylogeny

The Vanhorniidae were named by the first describer James C. Crawford in honor of RW van Horn, who discovered the animals.

The family comprises two or three genera, depending on the scientific understanding. The genus Heloseriphus with the species H.castor and H.pollux , which has been described from Canada, was originally placed in this family, but is now mostly included in the Proctotrupidae . This leaves only two genera and three species:

Vanhorniidae are considered to be a species-poor relic group with a basal position within the Proctotrupoidea, possibly the sister group of the Proctotrupidae. Fossils assigned to this family have not been found.


  • Lubomir Masner: Superfamily Proctotrupoidea. In: Henry Goulet & John T. Huber (editors): Hymenoptera of the world, an identification key to families. Agriculture Canada. Research Branch. IV Series: Publication. 1993. ISBN 0-660-14933-8 .
  • Mark Deyrup (1985): Notes on the Vanhorniidae (Hymenoptera). Great Lakes Entomologist Vol. 18, no.2: 65-68.

Individual evidence

  1. Ingmar Wall (2011): Contribution to the spread of European wasps, preferably in southwest Germany (Hymenoptera Parasitica: Heloridae and Serphidae). 3rd addendum. Entomofauna Volume 32, Issue 7: 161-180. PDF
  2. ^ JC Crawford (1909): A new family of parasitic Hymenoptera. Proceedings of The Entomological Society of Washington 11: 63-65. Full text online
  3. ^ Norman F. Johnson (1992): Catalog of the world species of Proctotrupoidea, exclusive of Platygastridae (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute No. 51.
  4. ^ Proctotrupoidea, Ceraphronoidea, and Cynipoidea Phylogenetics Project website
  5. Alexandre P. Aguiar et al. (2013): Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Editor): Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa, 3703, 1-82.
  6. ^ Moon Bo Choi & Jong Wook Lee (2012): First record of Vanhorniidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) from Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Volume 15, Issue 1: 59-61. doi : 10.1016 / j.aspen.2011.08.003
  7. John Heraty, Fredrik Ronquist, James M. Carpenter, David Hawks, Susanne Schulmeister, Ashley P. Dowling, Debra Murray, James Munro, Ward C. Wheeler, Nathan Schiff, Michael Sharkey (2011): Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73-88. doi : 10.1016 / j.ympev.2011.04.003
  8. Seraina Klopfstein, Lars Vilhelmsen, John M. Heraty, Michael Sharkey, Fredrik Ronquist (2013): The Hymenopteran Tree of Life: Evidence from Protein-Coding Genes and Objectively Aligned Ribosomal Data. Data. PLoS ONE 8 (8): e69344. doi : 10.1371 / journal.pone.0069344

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