Hot forming

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With warm forming those forming steps are referred to above the recrystallization temperature of a metal take place. The solidification that takes place during the forming process is accompanied by recovery and softening processes that take place during and after the forming step . This enables very high degrees of deformation to be achieved.

Hot forming processes can include:

Comparison of hot and cold forming

Hot forming Cold forming
Forming above the recrystallization temperature Forming below the recrystallization temperature
Large changes in shape are possible Minor changes in shape are possible
Low forming forces Higher forces with a comparable degree of deformation
Dimensional tolerances and surface quality worse than with cold forming Close dimensional tolerances are possible
Scaled surface No scaling of the surface
Solidification is constantly being broken down The solidification can be broken down by recrystallization annealing after forming.

Individual evidence