Lending business

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Under the lending business is understood in banking all banking transactions relating to the one asset side of the bank's balance sheet and "below the line" reflected.


Lending business includes, in particular, loans to non-banks and credit institutions in the context of money lending ( money loans of all kinds) and credit lending ( guarantee credits , letters of credit , acceptance credits ) ( credit business ), the acquisition of participations and bonds (in particular corporate bonds , government bonds ) or the purchase of credit derivatives as Collateral provider . Under banking law, these transactions conceal the banking transactions of Section 1 Paragraph 1 No. 2, 3, 8 and 10, Paragraph 11 No. 8 KWG . Lending business also includes the so-called counterparty default risk , which consists of the risk of the counterparty of a transaction failing before the payments associated with this transaction are finally settled (Art. 2 No. 11 Ordinance on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories).

The passive transactions serve to refinance these lending transactions . For the purpose of quota allocation, the Capital Adequacy Ordinance (English abbreviation CRR) provides for several limits on lending business, because its diverse credit risks can threaten the existence of credit institutions. The risk-weighted risk positions resulting from lending business (including property, plant and equipment and other assets ) must not exceed 12.5 times the equity capital (Art. 92 (3) CRR). In addition, according to Art. 392 CRR, large exposures may not exceed 10% of the eligible capital.

Through the lending business, the banks realize the task of the financial intermediary with the transformation of deadlines , lot sizes and risks within the framework of banking management . The maximum load theory deals, among other things, with the illiquidity of many bank loans in the event of a bank run .

Legal issues

For the purposes of millions of loans , Section 19 (1) KWG defines loans as “balance sheet assets, derivatives (with the exception of standstill obligations from purchase options and the guarantees assumed for them) and other off-balance sheet transactions”. In section 19 (1) sentence 3 KWG, 15 off-balance sheet transactions are then listed, which are also considered loans. Besides the classic contingent liabilities in particular: buying and refinancing satisfied (No. 12), not yet been utilized loan commitments (no. 13), credit derivative (no. 14) and other non-detected sheet transactions (no. 16). The Capital Adequacy Ordinance (CRR) also covers the relative amount of assets, off-balance sheet obligations and contingent liabilities measured in terms of an institution's own funds (Art. 4 Para. 1 No. 93 CRR). The risk position also includes (among other things for large exposures ) the off-balance sheet items (Art. 5 Para. 1 CRR) in addition to the assets.

The term lending business is therefore much broader in regulatory terms than is colloquially the case. The broad interpretation ensures that all transactions with a counterparty risk are to be backed with own funds. Balance sheet assets are understood to mean all assets with a counterparty risk.


The lending business can be broken down as follows:

  Forderungen an Kunden 
  täglich fällig (Forderungen aus Kontokorrentkrediten, Dispositionskrediten)
  + kurzfristige Forderungen (Restlaufzeiten bis zu drei Monaten)
  + mittelfristige Forderungen (Restlaufzeiten von drei Monaten bis unter fünf Jahren): insbesondere Investitionskredite, Konsumkredite
  + langfristige Forderungen (Restlaufzeiten von fünf Jahren und mehr): insbesondere Immobilienfinanzierungen
  + Forderungen an Kreditinstitute
    täglich fällig (Forderungen aus Interbankgeldgeschäften)
    + kurzfristige Forderungen (Restlaufzeiten bis zu drei Monaten)
    + mittelfristige Forderungen (Restlaufzeiten von drei Monaten bis unter fünf Jahren)
    + langfristige Forderungen (Restlaufzeiten von fünf Jahren und mehr)
  + Schuldverschreibungen und Aktien des Finanzanlagevermögens
  + Schuldverschreibungen und Aktien des Umlaufvermögens
  = bilanzielles Aktivgeschäft
  + Eventualverbindlichkeiten
    Avalkredite, Akkreditive, Azeptkredite
  + Derivate 
    Kreditderivate als Sicherungsgeber
  = Geschäftsvolumen


In subsection 1, the Financial Institution Accounting Ordinance (RechKredV) breaks down the "items on the assets side" according to " Claims on credit institutions" ( Section 14 RechKredV), "Claims on non-banks" ( Section 15 RechKredV), bonds in the portfolio ( Section 16 RechKredV), shares in the portfolio ( Section 17 RechKredV) and participations ( Section 18 RechKredV). The institutes must subdivide periods in the annex to the annual financial statements in accordance with Section 9 (2) RechKredV, namely for remaining terms of these balance sheet items of <3 months,> 3 months to 1 year,> 1 year to 5 years and> 5 years.

The accounting for contingent liabilities is regulated in Section 26 (1) RechKredV ( liability by bills of exchange ), Section 26 (2) RechKredV ( sureties , warranty contracts , guarantees , letters of comfort and letters of credit ), Section 26 (3) RechKredV (collateral from bank assets for third-party liabilities) , Section 27 (2) RechKredV (irrevocable loan commitments that have not been used ). According to prevailing opinion, other derivatives , as pending transactions, are subject to an accounting ban due to the so-called “non- accounting principle of pending transactions”. This principle is not legally codified, but is derived from the principles of proper bookkeeping (accounting). So after is § 36 sentence in the Appendix with a list of outstanding, one RechKredV foreign currency - interest- related and other forward transactions with settlement risk to take. A distinction is made between currency-related, interest-related and derivatives with other price risks, which only need to be listed by name. The protection seller of a credit default swap shows a contingent liability in the amount of the assumed credit risk in accordance with § 251 HGB or § 340a HGB in conjunction with § 35 RechKredV and the corresponding forms, as long as a claim is not expected.

Individual evidence

  1. Regulation (EU) No. 648/2012 of July 4, 2012, ABl. L 201/1