Under investment loan is understood to bank loans , which the financing of investments in companies , municipalities or self- serving.
Bank loans can also be differentiated according to the intended use of the loan, among other things . There are at businesses and self-employed as a borrower in addition to the investment loan nor the working capital loans , which secure the liquidity serve. While the latter are short-term (usually <1 year term), investment loans have terms of 4 years to 15 years and are synchronized with the operational useful life of the financed assets . For credit institutions, investment loans are considered banking business within the meaning of Section 1 (1) No. 2 KWG .
Operational investments are made in property, plant and equipment through new investments, replacement investments , modernization or expansion investments . This includes the acquisition of factory and office equipment , machines , the vehicle fleet , the purchase of land for operational use and the development of company buildings. The financing of the acquisition of intangible assets ( patents , licenses ), a participation or an entire company ( company acquisition or debt-financed takeover ) as a financial asset is also part of the investment loans. In addition, the financing of research and development projects is also included in the investment loans. Since investments are usually made in long-term fixed assets, the term of the investment loan is based on the useful life ( depreciation period ) of the financed assets. According to Section 103 (1) GemO Rhineland-Palatinate, investment loans may only be taken out for investments and investment promotion measures and for rescheduling investment loans; this also applies in most federal states.
As a rule, credit institutions require the use of equity between 10% and 25% of the investment amount in their credit conditions ; full financing is the exception. The use of equity capital can reduce the credit risk , while the borrower can also prove that he has taken his own financial risk. This also promotes compliance with the golden rule of balances. Depending on the investment, purchase contracts for office furniture , machines, vehicles or land, financial plans and cash flow calculations for the expected cash flows of the planned investment may be considered as loan documents . Because of their long-term nature, investment loans are regularly secured. Purchased capital goods, which are used by way of transfer of ownership (machines), transfer of ownership of motor vehicles or land charges (land) by way of security , usually come into question as loan collateral . Most of the time, the loan is made available for a specific purpose. It is usually repaid in the form of an installment loan (based on the depreciation returns ) or as a bullet ; the annuity loan can be used to finance company property.
- ↑ Hans Paul Becker / Arno Peppmeier, Bankbetriebslehre , 2006, p. 143
- ↑ Michael Bitz / Gunnar Stark, Financial Services: Presentation - Analysis - Criticism , 2015, p. 90
- ↑ Gabler Bank-Lexikon, 1983, p. 1170