Askerî ( Ottoman عسکری, from arab. al-'Askar , soldier) named in the medieval caste system of the Ottoman Empire to exempt nobility. Askerî included all groups of people who served the state directly, in particular members of the army ( seyfiye ), court officials ( mülkiye ), tax collectors ( kalemiye ) and clergy.
Belonging to the Askerî class was independent of religious belief. For example, in the 15th century, half of the Ottoman army in Rumelia consisted of Christian cavalrymen . In some cases the Askerî were able to pass on their privileged status to their descendants. The privileges of the Askerî were documented in edicts of the Sultan, the jurisdiction over them was the responsibility of the Kazasker . Below the Askerî was the taxable state of the Reâyâ .
A change of status was rare at first. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the division between Askerî and Reâyâ became increasingly blurred, and Askerî of peasant descent who possessed hereditary property were not uncommon. In the 18th century, the status also included merchants and craftsmen.
Askari (local soldiers or police officers in the colonial troops of the European powers)
- Suraiya Faroqhi: Ottomans, Ottoman Empire . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 6, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-7608-8906-9 , Sp. 1496-1507 (here: Sp. 1499).
- B. Lewis: ASKARĪ . In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, Leiden 1954-, Vol. I, p. 712.
- P. Sugar: Southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, 1354-1804. University of Washington Press: Seattle 1977, pp. 33-40.
- H. Inalcik: Ottoman Methods of Conquest, in: Studia Islamica, 2 (1954), S. 115th