Kazasker or Kadıasker ( Ottoman قاضيعسكر İA ḳāżıʿasker , German 'Army Judge' ) was one of the highest offices in the Ottoman Empire . The Kazasker appointed judges and religious dignitaries. Kazaskers were part of the "Divan-i Hümayun", the lordly council of the Sultan. The institution of the Kazasker was probably taken over by the Seljuks of Anatolia .
Sultan Murad I appointed the first Kazasker in 1383 as the supervisory authority for all judges and as the supreme authority of military justice. From Mehmed the Conqueror there was one Kazasker for Anatolia and one for Rumelia . At times, after the great conquests under Selim I, there was also a Kazasker for the Arab and Persian world. This resided in Diyarbakır . The first Kazasker in Diyarbakır was İdris-i Bitlisî .
From the 16th century, the Kazasker lost influence in connection with the upgrading of the office of Sheikhul Islam during Ebussud Efendi's tenure . In 1914, the Kazaskans of Anatolia and Rumelia were united into one office. The Republic of Turkey abolished the office in 1924 together with the Caliphate.
The office of Kazasker goes back to pre-Ottoman times. al-Kindī describes the existence of this title for the time of Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī in the year 750 AD. The office of army judge also existed among the Seljuks and Ayyubids .
- Ḳāḍīʿaskar . In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition