So it is:
- baryons like the proton and the neutron (each composed of 3 quarks) +1 for
- +1/3 for quarks
- leptons (such as the electron ) and for mesons 0 for
- −1/3 for antiquarks and
- −1 for antibaryons (each composed of 3 antiquarks).
Baryon number as a conserved quantity
Experience has shown that the number of baryons in a closed system always remains constant, so it is an absolute conservation quantity . This knowledge - a basic component of the standard model of elementary particle physics - makes the stability of matter understandable. Since a spontaneous decay can only ever lead to lighter particles because of the conservation of energy, the lightest baryon, the proton, is stable.
In many theories going beyond the standard model, such as B. According to the great unified theory (GUT) the baryon number is not an exact conserved quantity, so that protons decay over time , but with a very long half-life .
The currently assumed mechanisms of baryogenesis , the emergence of the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the early universe fractions of a second after the Big Bang , assume that the baryon number is not maintained.
- Klaus Rith, Christoph Scholz, Frank Zetsche: Particles and Cores: an introduction to the physical concepts . Springer DE, 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-68080-2 , p. 109f.
- Wolfgang Demtröder: Experimental Physics 4: Nuclear, Particle And Astrophysics . Springer DE, January 1, 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-01598-4 , pp. 188–.
- Klaus Bethge, Ulrich E. Schröder: Elementary particles and their interactions . John Wiley & Sons, April 30, 2012, ISBN 978-3-527-66216-6 , pp. 296-.