The only pillar of surf in Germany is the Lange Anna off the island of Helgoland . Its name in Heligoland Frisian , Nathurn Stak ('Nordhorn-Brandungspfeiler'), is related to the English name stack and the Scottish Gaelic name stac . In Scotland, surf piers can be found, for example, as part of the St. Kilda Archipelago ( Stac an Armin , Stac Lee ), where they were formed from the remains of a tertiary volcanic cone , at the Old Man of Hoy , at Dunnicaer Hillfort on the east coast or at the Flannan Isles . Smaller surf piers can be found around the Farne Islands in northeast England .
- Dieter Kelletat: Physical geography of the seas and coasts. An introduction, Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden 1989, ISBN 978-3-519-03426-1 .
- Landscape development influenced by anthropogenic influences in the east of Easter Island (accessed on September 2, 2019)
- Geology summary (accessed September 2, 2019)