Emirate of Daura

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Daura is a traditional house state in northern Nigeria, which today belongs to the state of Katsina of the Federation of Nigeria as an "emirate" .

Founding history

The special meaning of Daura is based on the legendary story, the validity of which is recognized by all Hausa . The city is considered the traditional center and origin of all house states . Accordingly, its original tradition , the Bayajidda legend, also affects the other home states and, beyond that, other states of Central Sudan. Legend has it that the city was founded by Queen Magajiya and her people, who immigrated from Palestine through North Africa . Later Bayajidda, who came from Baghdad, came to Daura via Bornu , killed the snake in the well and married the queen. In order to postpone the completion of the marriage, she gave the hero a slave as a concubine. Together with his concubine he fathered Karbagari , the progenitor of the "seven Banza " states and later with Queen Bawo , the progenitor of the "seven Hausa " states. The latter also includes Biram (Garun ta-Gabbas), a son of the hero from a previous marriage with a princess from Bornu, the Magira .

The determination of the historical sticking point of the legend causes difficulties, since a direct parallelization with historical circumstances is impossible. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the legend does not move in a vacuum, but is anchored in the state offices of Daura. During the great, today Muslim festival processions, the king embodies the snake killer Bayajidda and the "official" queen mother Magajiya embodies the legendary Queen of Daura of the same name. According to legend, the high officials Galadima and Kaura also play comparable roles in the festive cult drama . This shows that the origin of the state and the origin of the legend belong together. Taking into account the legendary queen's reference to Canaan, both can be traced back to state-building activities of the Phoenicians south of the Sahara.

Islamization and vassalage to Bornu

The wealth of news on the founding history contrasts with the lack of information on the later history of the events. Even the time of the introduction of Islam can only be dated to the middle of the 18th century on the basis of traditional rulers' names. The centuries-long domination of Bornus over the house states is generally recognized . During the delivery of the tributes consisting of slave contingents, Daura had the role of collecting these slaves once a year and sending them together to Bornu.

Effects of Sokoto Jihad: Overthrow of the Hausa Dynasty

In 1804 the Fulani scholar said Usman dan Fodio king of Gobir the Jihad . As a result, his tribal comrades who lived all over the Hausaland also spread war in the other Hausa states. The local leader of the Daura jihad was Ishiaku, who was previously a student of Usman dan Fodio. He captured the city in 1804-5, but after a period of wandering, members of the old dynasty were able to establish themselves in Zango, 18 km east, and in Bau, 50 km southeast of Daura.

Beginning of the colonial era: the Hausa return to power

After the death of the Fulani ruler of Daura Muhamman Mai Gurdo (1876–1906), the British governor of northern Nigeria F. Lugard appointed the Hausa king of Zango Malam Musa (1904–1911) as the new "Emir" of Daura. After 99 years of exile, such a member of the old Hausa dynasty was enthroned again in Daura. While all palace offices were occupied by Hausa, important offices of territorial administration remained in the hands of the Fulani. The coexistence of both ethnic groups, despite sporadic friction between the cattle herding Fulani and the arable farm Hausa, is largely peaceful.

Important Hausa kings from Daura

Beginning The End king
1778 1825 Sarkin Gwari Abdu
1825 1855 Lukudi, brother of Sarkin Gwari Abdu
1855 1861 Nuhu dan Sarkin Gwari Abdu
1877 1904 Tafida dan Nuhu
1906 1911 Musa dan Nuhu
1911 1966 Abd ar-Rahman dan Musa (born 1881 - died 1966)
1966 Feb. 26, 2007 Muhammadu Bashar dan Umaru (born 2007 - st. 2007)
28 Feb 2007 Umar Farouk dan Umar (born 1931)


  • SJ Hogben and Anthony Kirk-Greene: The Emirates of Northern Nigeria , London 1966 ("Daura", pp. 145-155).
  • Dierk Lange: Ancient Kingdoms of West Africa , Dettelbach 2004 ("Daura", pp. 219-233).
  • Michael Smith: The Affairs of Daura: History and Change in a Hausa State - 1800-1958 , Berkeley 1978.

Individual evidence

  1. Lange: Ancient Kingdoms , 289-296.
  2. Smith, Daura , 152-5.

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