The Bioengineering is a science of remedying landscape damage (primarily erosion protection ) with biological agents. Above all, plants are used that strengthen the soil with the help of the roots. In hydraulic engineering , the hydraulic effect of above-ground parts of plants ( turbulence in the water) is also used to protect against erosion. The effects of microorganisms on the soil structure in biological engineering structures are also important.
The DIN 18918 (Vegetation technology in landscaping - Biological methods - Stabilization by seeding and planting, stabilization with living and non-living materials and components, combined construction methods) is the basis of biological engineering work in Germany and provides notes on vegetation technical testing and evaluation of soils as well as for work for the creation of vegetation areas. When evaluating the environmental compatibility of the materials to be installed, DIN 18918 refers to the requirements of the Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance ( BBodSchV ).
DIN 18918 applies to all ground work (including construction and maintenance measures)
- Plants and planting work according to DIN 18916
- Lawn and seed work according to DIN 18917
- Biological engineering safety structures according to DIN 18918
- Development and maintenance maintenance according to DIN 18919
- Protective measures according to DIN 18920
It does not apply to lawns for sports fields according to DIN 18035-4.
The practical implementation of biological engineering findings is referred to as living structures or living structures (including green structures ). Among the plants, the narrow-leaved willows (various Salix species) are of particular importance. Also alder TYPES have a meaning in Lebendbau. The black alder ( Alnus glutinosa ) is planted to stabilize the banks of streams, the green alder ( A. viridis ) for building slopes in the high mountains.
Bush litter and bush building
Bush plots are used when securing slope slopes. The construction takes place step by step while the embankment is being poured . In doing so, wood species (e.g. willow) that can be harvested in layers are built in and then covered over. These knock out after a short time and, through the formation of roots, ensure permanent stabilization of the embankment. Also suitable for embankments with a high risk of slipping.