As incrustations (of lat. Incrustare = (an object with a material) coat ) refers to retention in the cell walls of plants (see also: incrustation ). These give the cell walls greater stability. During paper production , the incrustations present in the raw material (usually wood , occasionally also stems of plants such as hemp ) must be removed in order to achieve good quality.
Word origin and meaning
Incrusts (grammatically de facto a plural word , the singular the incrust is not in use) is a collective term for a number of chemical compounds, of which lignin plays the largest role. According to Ottersbach (→ Lit.), The term also includes resins and starch-like substances (non-fibrous hemicellulose ). In addition to lignin, the lexicon of biology also lists tanning and coloring agents , silica , calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate . There is no clear definition. In the 19th century, the terms incrustations and lignin were sometimes used as synonymous, as other non-fibrous constituents of the wood had not yet been analyzed in detail. The term appears on the French term matières incrustantes return, the Anselme Payen coined.
In contrast to the incrustations within the cell walls, deposits on the cell walls are referred to as accrusts or adcrusts . Both terms appear only in botanical specialist literature, incrustations also appear in specialist literature and textbooks for professions in paper production and processing, but are missing in most general and foreign dictionaries .
Explanation of the term
- Ludwig Kalb, Analysis of Lignin , in: Handbuch der Pflanzenanalyse , ed. v. Gustav Klein, Volume 3, Part 2, 1st Half, 1932, pp. 156–204 (especially p. 157ff)
- Felix Ehrlich u. Friedrich Schubert, About the chemistry of the incrustations of flax , in: Biochemische Zeitschrift ( ISSN 0366-0753 ), vol. 169.1926, p. 13ff
- Handbook of paper and cardboard manufacture (paper dictionary) , Volume 1, edit. by Fritz Hoyer et al., 1944, pp. 808f
- Jochem Ottersbach, Bedruckstoff und Farbe , 3rd edition 1995 ( ISBN 3-88013-531-2 ), p. 21
- Incrustation , in: Lexikon der Biologie , Volume 7, 2001 ( ISBN 3-8274-0332-4 )
Further evidence of word usage
- NI Nikitin, Die Chemie des Holzes , 1955, pp. 246f
- Albert Frey-Wyssling, The Plant Cell Wall , 1959
- Josef Hölzl u. Engelbert Bancher, Structure and Properties of Organic Natural Products , 1965
- ↑ cf. Nikitin 1955, p. 215, and Reinhard Trendelenburg u. Hans Mayer-Wegelin , Wood as raw material , 2nd edition 1955, p. 174, translated as incrusting substances . In Trendelenburg / Mayer-Wegelin 1955 on pp. 173–223 a detailed description of the chemical composition of wood.