Integrated spatial reference 2016

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The integrated (geodetic) Spatial Reference 2016 includes the date in the German state survey used coordinate reference systems for position, height and gravity . The associated coordinates were determined in the years 2006–2012 through joint measurements and subsequent calculations using standardized models and methods, so that the heights from GNSS observations and leveling can be determined with the greatest possible accuracy (in the flatlands about 1 cm, in the high mountains about 2 cm) can be converted into each other.

In the past, nationwide position coordinates and heights were always measured in separate procedures and also represented in different reference systems.

By determining coordinates with GNSS methods, 3-dimensional coordinates can now be determined. The heights derived from this relate to a purely mathematical surface, the ellipsoid of revolution . They are therefore called ellipsoidal heights.

The determination of height differences by leveling is influenced by the earth's gravity field, which is why these heights are also referred to as physical heights . Physical heights should meet the user's expectation that no water flows between points of the same height. The heights from GNSS measurements do not meet this condition. In order to be able to use them anyway, they have to be converted into physical heights using the quasigeoid .

The integrated (geodetic) spatial reference 2016 links the reference systems ETRS89 / DREF91 (implementation 2016), DHHN2016 and DHSN2016 via the quasigeoid model GCG2016. The introduction was decided by the plenum of the Working Group of the Land Surveying Administrations (AdV) on September 21, 2016.

Reference systems

ETRS89 / DREF91 (implementation 2016)

After 1994 and 2002 this is the third implementation of the ETRS89 in Germany. The official realization was originally based on the coordinates of the points of the German Reference Network 1991 (DREF91) . In 2002 coordinates were adjusted using observation data and readjustment. A new GNSS campaign in 2008, linked with height and gravity fixed points as well as geodetic basic network points (GGP frame network), finally led to the implementation in 2016. The coordinate changes are in the range of up to 5 mm (position) or 13 mm (height) .


The German Main Elevation Network 2016 (DHHN2016) was introduced nationwide by June 30, 2017 and replaces the DHHN92. For this purpose, the first-order leveling network was completely re-measured nationwide. The height differences between the two systems are up to 3 cm.


The German main heavy network 2016 (DHSN2016) replaces the DHSN96 . For the realization, gravity values ​​were validated by absolute gravity measurements, further points were determined and relative gravity measurements were integrated.


The results of the network renewals in terms of position, height and severity were the basis for the German Combined Quasigeoid 2016 (GCG2016) . Taking into account the gravity measurements, it is determined using the difference between ellipsoidal heights in ETRS89 / DREF91 (implementation 2016) and normal heights in DHHN2016 and is therefore consistent with all three systems.


The changeover to the improved coordinates of the SAPOS reference station points (RSP) took place on December 1, 2016. The heights were changed on June 30, 2017.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Product information from the SAPOS Central Office (2016/2). Retrieved August 29, 2017 .
  2. Product information from the Central Office SAPOS (2017/1). Retrieved August 29, 2017 .