JNR class 860

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"JNR Class 860"
Kokutetsu 860-gata
Manufacturer: Teishin-shō Tetsudō-chō Kobe-kōjō
Year of construction (s): 1893
Type : 2-4-2 (1'B1 ')
Gauge : 1067 mm ( cape track )
Length over buffers: 9,652 mm
Height: 3,581 mm
Driving wheel diameter: 1,346 mm (4 ft 5 in)
Control type : Joystick
HD cylinder diameter: 381 mm
LP cylinder diameter: 372 mm
Piston stroke: 508 mm
Boiler overpressure: 10.2 kg / cm 2

The JNR class 860 ( Japanese 国 鉄 860 形 (蒸 気 機関 車) kokutetsu 860-gata (jōki kikansha) , German "(steam locomotive of the state railway class 860") was a Japanese tank locomotive . Completed in 1893, it was the first domestically produced steam locomotive in Japan. Manufacturers were the Kobe works of the railway authority of the Ministry of Communications ( Teishin-shō ) , which was the forerunner of the Ministry of Railways for the operation of the state railways (English Japanese Government Railways , JGR ; later as the state railway Japanese National Railways , JNR ).


The class 860 was completed in May 1893 ( Meiji 26) in the Kobe works. It was a two-cylinder compound steam locomotive and had a 2-4-2 (1B1) wheel arrangement.

The supervision of the planning and construction of the locomotive had essentially the railway inspector ( 汽車 監察 方 , kisha-kansatsukata ; English Locomotive Superintendent ) of the Kobe Railway Authority ( Kobe tetsudōkyoku ), a regional office of the railway authority. The position was then held by the Englishman Richard Francis Trevithick , a grandson of Richard Trevithick , who was brought to Japan in 1888 together with his brother Francis Henry as a "foreign contractor" . Trevithick had already developed a prototype of a composite steam locomotive in England. Together with the two Japanese engineers Mori Hikozō ( 森 彦 三 ) and Ōta Yoshimatsu ( 太 田吉松 ) he started construction in October 1892. Only Japanese technicians worked in the Kobe factories; however, only a small part of the components were produced domestically and a large part came from the United Kingdom.

The majority of the components for the essential parts of the locomotive - axles, boilers or cylinders - were imported from England. The assembly and manufacture of some iron and brass parts took place in the Kobe works.

The construction plans of the 860 were based on the imported A8 (Class 400) used as a standard at the same time . The external dimensions are almost identical. However, the lower front part of the boiler with the smoke chamber had a characteristic fan-like shape, which also influenced later constructions of Trevithick in the Kobe works.

Mission history

After completion, the locomotive was first used as "Class AE (221)" ( AE 形 (221) ) on the route between Kyoto and Kobe - a section of the later Tōkaidō main line - with comparative tests with other locomotives with a 2-4 wheel arrangement -2 (1B1). She drove according to the same timetable as the No. 179 of the class L ( JNR class 500 ) manufactured by Nasmyth Wilson and Co. in 1890 and the No. 88 (class L, 1888 by Nasmyth Wilson), which were later used in long-term use tests on best section. The tests showed a coal saving of between 10 and 15 percent.

Despite this advantage, the development of composite steam locomotives was discontinued by the state railways. They were only used effectively with the San'yō Tetsudō on the later state San'yō main line , which used imported Vauclain composite steam locomotives (JNR class 8450).

Class 860 was designated as locomotive number 137 in 1894 and classified as Class A9 ( A9 形 ) by the Railway Department of the Ministry of Communications in 1898 . In 1902 it was grouped with class A8 (JNR class 400, 500, 600, 700) and numbered as 885. In 1909 it became class 860 in the classification of the Railway Authority.

In 1918, the 860 ceased operations on the main islands and was transferred to Karafuto-chō Tetsudō, where it was used on the east coast of Karafuto ( Sakhalin ) until March 1929 . It was probably dismantled there - its whereabouts are not known.


  • Kawakami Yukiyoshi ( 川 上 幸 義 ): 私 の 蒸 気 機関 車 史 上 Kōyūsha 1978.
  • Kinda Shigehiro ( 金 田茂裕 ): 日本 蒸 気 機関 車 史 官 設 鉄 道 編 , Kōyūsha 1972.
  • Takada Takao ( 高田 隆 雄 ) (Ed.): 万 有 ガ イ ド シ リ ー ズ 12 蒸 気 機関 車 日本 編 , Shōgakukan 1981.
  • Usui Shigenobu ( 臼 井 茂 信 ): 日本 蒸 気 機関 車 形式 図 集成 , Seibundō Shinkōsha 1969.
  • Usui Shigenobu ( 臼 井 茂 信 ): 機関 車 の 系譜 図 1 , Kōyūsha 1972.


  1. The metric system was not introduced nationwide by the Ministry of Railways until 1930.

Individual evidence

  1. Japanese Railway and Transport Review: Japanese Railway History, chap. 3, Eiichi Aoki: Growth of Independent Railway Technology ( Memento of the original dated February 5, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.6 MB), p. 58 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.jrtr.net