Job Market

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In a job exchange (also job exchange or job market ) job advertisements from various companies are published. Job boards can be found both as a separate section in print media and on the Internet as online job boards and at company contact fairs . In today's parlance, however, the term job exchange is usually associated with an online platform that displays a wide range of job advertisements.

On job boards, costs usually only arise for employers for the placement of advertisements. Online job exchanges are usually free of charge for job seekers. You can often find tips and information on the topics of jobs, careers and applications on job exchanges. Some job boards also specialize in certain industries, occupational groups or geographical areas.

Use by employers

Online job exchanges are used by employers as a means in personnel marketing and recruitment and are now considered to be the most effective medium for recruiting new employees. In 2011, 87% of vacancies were advertised on the company's own website and 61.2% in Internet job exchanges, compared to 20.2% in print media.

Use by applicants

With 66.8%, the Internet job exchange is the channel most frequently used when applicants actively search for vacancies and potential employers. Company websites and career networks follow at a considerable distance. Print media, on the other hand, are often used by only 28.4% of those surveyed for job searches. In particular, computer-savvy applicants such as people from the fields of IT, technology and electronics or media rate online recruiting methods positively and use them intensively. This is also evident in professional groups whose activities are characterized by a high degree of computerization. Applicants from professional fields such as production and manufacturing or social affairs and education tend, however, to continue to prefer offline application channels.

To measure the usage behavior of online media, measurement methods are used that implement counting pixels (the IVW pixel ) on the website in order to record visits and calls to other subpages (page impressions). A meaningful and transparent measurement for the use of job boards is the neutral and objective IVW measurement, which determines and checks the distribution and reach of advertising media. This determines the total number of page views and the individual related usage processes of web offers. It thus provides transparent data for consumers and the competition between the media. The current measured values ​​can be viewed freely on the IVW website.

According to IVW measurement, the online job exchange, which is majority owned by Axel Springer AG, ranks first in Germany. Other job exchanges used are, or JobScout24.


An online job exchange is a job market in which the operator provides job offers from employers by means of information retrieval and selection for placement ( search engines ) and is thus a variant of e-recruiting . B. special categories in print or online media in which employees can post job searches or portals in which employees can create a profile on their career and qualifications (social networks or other databases). In this case, the company first approaches the employee directly in the recruiting process, whereby in the case of online job exchanges, the job seeker initially applies for the job advertisement.

Employer career pages on which job advertisements are published are also not a job exchange, as these employer job markets only publish job offers for their own company and not from third parties.

A distinction is made between the following forms of online job exchanges:

Generalistic job boards

In contrast to the special job exchanges, the general job exchanges do not limit the job advertisements presented in terms of industry, occupation, region, function or group of providers. For this reason, the generalist job exchanges also have the largest displayed range and the highest usage figures. With the help of special search technologies, applicants can select the search results for their own needs and display relevant results.

Meta job boards

Meta job boards are based on automated searches in which the job advertisements from specific job boards are searched and provided in an index for search queries. The link is then made to the respective original job advertisement that was published in the job exchange that was searched by the meta job exchange. Meta job boards are therefore not independent job boards, as the job advertisements have already appeared on another job board on the Internet.

Job search engines are to be distinguished from a meta job exchange . This is understood to mean an Internet offer that, in addition to job exchanges, also searches company websites and other Internet portals for available positions. In contrast to general search engines such as Google or Bing, job search engines use specific analyzes to select the origin of job advertisements or to assign job and job-specific terms on the basis of a semantic analysis.

Special job boards

Special job exchanges differ from general job exchanges by specializing in certain industries (e.g. Lower Saxony agricultural job exchange), target groups (e.g. students), local focus (e.g. Erzgebirge specialist portal) or the approved group of providers. Since 2014, there have also been special job exchanges with functional additions, so Xing and Companize have integrated insider information about the employers who advertise as well as special search filters (e.g. Companize job exchange).

Microjob exchange

The micro-job exchange is a relatively new trend. Members have the opportunity to offer and buy small activities - so-called "gigs".

The first microjob exchange was the US site Fiverr , which started in 2010 and is now ranked by Alexa as the 177 most visited site. The "gigs" jobs usually cost $ 5 and offer small services for this.


From the mid-1990s onwards, the expansion of the internet resulted in an increasing shift to the online area, as the processes for filling vacancies can thus be partially automated and accelerated. Another reason are the lower costs compared to print job advertisements. In 2011, 62.9% of all vacancies were advertised on internet job boards. This means that significantly more vacancies were published in this recruiting channel than in print media, where in 2011 only two out of ten job advertisements were placed. This corresponds to a decrease of 17.6 percentage points compared to 2002.

Job exchanges initially began with the digitization of the actual job market, which corresponds to the classic collection of job advertisements in print media. In the coming years, the search technologies of the job exchanges in particular were continuously improved and other services, such as the use of online applicant profiles, expanded. The decisive quality features of job boards are: a. the frequency of use, the topicality , the quality of the search results, the scope of the offer and the user friendliness.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Elisabeth Milchrahm: Inventory of the US job market in knowledge management. (PDF; 272 kB) In: Bekavac, Bernard; Herget, Josef; Rittberger, Marc (ed.). UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 2004, SS 395-411 , accessed on September 30, 2011 .
  2. a b c Recruiting Trends 2011. In: . Retrieved September 30, 2011 .
  3. Thielsch, MT, Träumer, L., Pytlik, L. & Kanning, UP (2012). Personnel marketing from the applicant's perspective: use and evaluation. Journal of Business and Media Psychology, 3 (1), 1-12 PDF
  4. Online usage data January 2013. (No longer available online.) Information community for determining the distribution of advertising media e. V., formerly in the original ; Retrieved January 10, 2013 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  5. Advertising media data. (No longer available online.) Information community to determine the spread of advertising media e. V., archived from the original on March 30, 2013 ; Retrieved March 7, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  6. Milchrahm, E .: advertising media data. (PDF; 272 kB) In: Inventory of the US job market in knowledge management. 2004, accessed March 7, 2013 .
  7. Köhler, D./Klug, S. (2000): Stellenm @ rkt Internet: a mouse click to a new job, Frankfurt / Main: Campus-Verlag 2000. Gowan, M./Aquino, G. (2001): Find the Right Job online. In: PC World, 19 (2001) 2, pp. 135-143.
  8. Milchrahm, E .: advertising media data. (PDF; 272 kB) In: Inventory of the US job market in knowledge management. 2004, accessed March 7, 2013 .
  9. "Your boss is annoying? The best job portals on the Internet". PC Welt, accessed April 30, 2015 .
  10. SiteInfo . Alexa Internet . Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  11. ^ Mary Pilon: What Will People Do for $ 5? Fiverr Lets You Find Out . In: Wall Street Journal , March 16, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2011.