Langue ( French langue [ ˈlɑ̃ɡ ], German 'language (of a people)' ) is a technical term introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure in linguistics , in particular in general linguistics , and describes the (general, supra-individual, social) language system as a system of signs and grammatical rules. "Langue" is the opposite of " Parole " (French parole 'word' , 'speech'), which is defined as the concrete spatio-temporal realization of the langue in linguistic utterances. To a certain extent, the langue represents the linguistic inventory of a single language , the watchword for its application.
The term "langue" was introduced by de Saussure in his work Cours de linguistique générale (1916; German: Basic questions of general linguistics , 1967). He thereby highlighted language as a social phenomenon and an accompanying conventionality of linguistic signs.
The pair of terms "Langue - Parole" represents "the pivot point of the entire structuralist and post- structuralist linguistics". This conceptual opposition had precursors, but also parallels and later variants:
- "Ergon - Energeia" (Wilhelm von Humboldt)
- "Language - Speech" (Hermann Paul 1880)
- "Speech system - updated speech" (Georg von der Gabelentz 1891)
- "Langue - Parole" (Ferdinand de Saussure 1896)
- "Forms of language - speech act" (Karl Bühler 1934)
- "Register - use" (Michael AK Halliday 1961)
- "Competence - Performance " (Noam Chomsky 1965)
Another parallel to this dichotomy is the distinction between type vs. Token that also uses corpus linguistic methodology, but corpus linguistics is one of the few undertakings to overcome this dichotomous concept of language. Another pair of opposites in this regard is sometimes also "pattern" vs. Called "application".
One of the criticisms of the “Langue” model is the “claim to autonomy of a purely theoretical, inner-linguistic view of language”, which leads to a devaluation of human speech, which is only viewed as a means to the end of determining the corpus of the Langue.
The "Langue" is the terminology be defined according to de Saussure of the " Langage " (French. Langage , language (as a means of expression) ' , intercom capability'), which uses it either as a generic term to "Langue" and "password" or as faculté de langage , i.e. as the human ability to speak in contrast to animal expressions.
- Heidrun Pelz: Linguistics. An introduction . 2nd Edition. Hoffmann & Kampe, Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3-455-10331-6 , pp. 57 .
- Hadumod Bußmann (ed.) With the collaboration of Hartmut Lauffer: Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft. 4th, revised and bibliographically supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-520-45204-7 , keyword Langue vs. Watchword .
- So z. B. Peter Ernst: Pragmalinguistics. Basics, applications, problems. Berlin: De Gruyter 2002, ISBN 3-11-017013-2 , p. 65.