Mono (Ubangian language)

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Spoken in

Democratic Republic of the Congo (northwest)
speaker 65,000 (1984)

Ubangic languages

Language codes
ISO 639-3


Mono is a Ubangic language spoken by over 65,000 people in northwestern Congo .

It is one of the Banda languages , a subgroup of the Ubangian languages ​​that are no longer included in the Niger-Congo languages . It has five dialects: Bili, Bubanda, Mpaka, Galaba and Kaga.

Mono has 33 consonant phonemes , including three labial-velar plosives ( / k͡p / , / ɡ͡b / and prenasalized / ᵑ͡ᵐɡ͡b / ), an asymmetrical eight- vowel system, and a labiodental flap ( [ⱱ] ) that begins with both / v / and contrasted with / w / . It's a tonal language .


  • Kamanda-Kola, Roger. 2003. Phonologie et morpho-syntaxe du mono: Langue oubanguienne du Congo RD (LINCOM Studies in African Linguistics 60). Munich: LINCOM EUROPA.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. 2004. "Mono". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2). 233-238.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. 2005. The phonology of Mono (SIL International and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 140). Dallas: SIL & UTA.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. & Brian E. Schrag. 2000. 'An overview of Mono phonology'. In H. Ekkehard Wolff & Orin Gensler (eds.), Proceedings from the 2nd World Congress of African Linguistics, Leipzig 1997 , 393-409. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Ethnologue report for Mono