Labial-velar plosives are doubly articulated consonants , which are characterized by the fact that they are created by a labial and a velar lock . In contrast to consonant clusters , the articulation takes place in both places simultaneously. Labial-velar plosives can be found in various West African Niger-Congo languages , in the Creole language Saramaccaan , in some Austronesian languages and as an allophone in Vietnamese . In the phonetic spelling IPA , labial-velar plosives are characterized by the bracketing of the two plosive components; there are also ligatures for the two most frequently occurring labial-velar plosives .
A distinction must be made between a voiced [ ɡ͡b ] and an unvoiced [ k͡p ] form of labial-velar plosive. According to Peter Ladefoged , most West African languages with labial-velar plosives know both the voiced and the unvoiced form, while others only know one of the forms. Ladefoged also distinguished three types of articulation of these consonants: a purely egressive , a pulmonary-egressive, velar- ingressive and a pulmonary-egressive, velar-glottal-ingressive. A distinction between voiced and unvoiced form can also be found in Saramaccaans, where there are labialized velar plosives as well as labial- velar plosives. In addition, a labialized variant [ k͡pʷ ] in the Mwotlap and a prenasalized labialized variant [ ᵑ͡ᵐɡ͡bʷ ] of a labial-velar plosive in the Volow have come from Vanuatu, and a prenasalized variant without labialization [ ᵑ͡ᵐɡ͡b ] in Mono (Democratic Republic of the Congo) . In the Ega (Ivory Coast) there is a labial-velar implosive [ ɠ͡ɓ ].
- John Hajek: On labial-velar stops and nasals in Vietnamese . In: The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal 38, 2008. pp. 217-221.
- Peter Ladefoged : A Phonetic Study of West African Languages: An Auditory-instrumental Survey . Cambridge University Press, 1968. ISBN 0521069637 . (Chapter Airstream Mechanisms and Double Articulations , pp. 5–13.)
- Peter Ladefoged: A Phonetic Study of West African Languages: An Auditory-instrumental Survey . Cambridge University Press, 1968. ISBN 0521069637 . Pp. 5-13.
- John McWhorter, Jeff Good: A Grammar of Saramaccan Creole . Walter de Gruyter, 2012. ISBN 311027826X . Pp. 5-7.
- Alexandre François: A typological overview of Mwotlap, an Oceanic language of Vanuatu . In: Linguistic Typology 9, 2005. p. 116.
- Kenneth S. Olson: Mono . In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34/2, 2004. pp. 233f.
- Bruce Connell, Firmin Ahoua, Dafydd Gibbon: Ega . In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association 32, 2002. pp. 99-104.