Myoclonia are rapid involuntary muscle twitching that often occurs as an accompanying symptom in a variety of neurological diseases. They are generated cortically (cerebral cortex), subcortically (other regions of the brain) or spinally (spinal cord). They are counted among the extrapyramidal hyperkinesias .
There are also myoclonus as natural phenomena without disease value, such as falling asleep .
Myoclonia are rhythmic or arrhythmic twitching of local muscle groups , multifocal or generalized. The exercise intensity varies. Extremity sections close to the trunk are often affected, as well as facial expressions and trunk muscles . If the myoclonus is intensified or activated by voluntary movement, one speaks of an action myoclonus. If they are triggered by external stimuli (touch, light stimuli , sounds), they are called reflex myoclonus.
Myoclonia can have various causes.
Myoclonia can occur in the context of epilepsy , for example in the context of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy or in progressive myoclonic epilepsy . Epileptic myoclonus cannot be interrupted by external influences. Typical patterns for epilepsy can be seen in the EEG .
Myoclonus can also occur as a symptom in various non-epileptic diseases. In contrast to epileptic myoclonus, these myoclonus can be influenced by addressing them / touching them and the EEG does not show any epilepsy patterns.
- Syncope (approx. 90% of childhood syncope show myoclonus as a symptom)
- Simple tics
- In the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as gluten ataxia
- Essential myoclonus
- Shuddering attacks
- Benign Infant Sleep Myoclonus
- Benign early childhood myoclonus
In addition, (cortical) myoclonus occur in the following diseases:
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ,
- metabolic encephalopathy ( hyponatremia , hypokalaemia ),
- Viral encephalitis ,
- Toxic encephalitis ( heavy metal , alcohol, or drug intoxication )
- Acute posthypoxic myoclonus syndrome
- Chronic posthypoxic myoclonus syndrome (synonym: Lance-Adams syndrome)
- Anticholinergic Syndrome
- Schwartz-Bartter Syndrome
- Acute intermittent porphyria
- Beta Propeller Protein Associated Neurodegeneration
Myoclonia can also be triggered by centrally acting analgesics and occur particularly with high-dose opioids that are administered in long-term therapy . They can also be signs of serotonin syndrome .