A distinction is made between periostitis caused by pathogens (e.g. bacteria) and inflammation of the periosteum and those caused by mechanical causes (e.g. overload / repeated impacts). Periostitis caused by excessive physical activity occurs primarily on the medial side of the shins (see also shin splint syndrome ) or on the underside of the forearms and is treated with immobilization ( i.e. tape bandages ), anti-inflammatory medication and local cooling. Periosteum inflammation can also occur as a result of a bacterial infection by Staphylococcus aureus , streptococci or Mycobacterium tuberculosis - especially in people with a weakened immune system - in combination with inflammation of the bone marrow ( osteomyelitis ). In these cases, antibiotic infusions are used .