As periosteum (including periosteum ) - anatomically periosteum called (from ancient Greek περί ὀστέον peri osteon from περί peri , German , around about ' and ὀστέον osteon , German , bones' ) - which the is bone covering, connective tissue called shell. It surrounds the bone with the exception of the articular surfaces . In the area of the skull it is also referred to as pericranium (from the Greek peri- [see above] and Latin cranium , skull ' ). The inner surfaces of the bone ( cancellous bone , marrow cavity ) be coated membrane is referred to as the endosteum ( endosteum hereinafter).
Layout and function
The periosteum consists of an outer collagen layer ( stratum fibrosum ) with elastic fibers ( Sharpey fibers ) and an inner cell-rich layer that also contains nerves and blood vessels ( stratum osteogenicum or cambium ). The cells of the cambium are bone precursor cells that differentiate into osteoblasts , i.e. bone-forming cells. They are the basis for thickness growth and bone healing after fractures . In contrast to the bone itself, the periosteum is very sensitive to pain. In addition, the periosteum serves to nourish the bones. The Sharpey fibers anchor the periosteum to the bone and thus also mediate the transmission of force via the attachment points for ligaments and tendons .
With the radius periosteal reflex , a blow is performed on the periosteum of the radius , which causes a reflex tension in the brachioradialis muscle . Acute inflammation of the periosteum is called periostitis . Chronic changes in the periosteum are called periostosis .
By applying blunt force, for example on the shin, injuries and bleeding of the periosteum can cause a hematoma to form under the periosteum. It is accompanied by severe pain and in the medium term can become pressure-sensitive, u. U. permanent permanent, palpable indurations.
If the periosteum is not detached from the bone during surgery, it is called an epiperiosteal dissection .
- Periosteum . In: Johann Samuelersch , Johann Gottfried Gruber (Hrsg.): General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts in alphabetical order . Section 3 Part 17. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1842, p. 65-66 ( GDZ ).
- Rolf Baur, Walther Graumann, Dieter Sasse: Compact textbook anatomy . Ed .: Walther Graumann. 1st edition. tape 1 : General anatomy. With 16 tables. Schattauer, Stuttgart / New York 2004, ISBN 3-7945-2061-0 , p. 153 .