Mushroom corals ( Fungiidae )
|Dana , 1846|
Fungi corals (Fungiidae) are stony corals that are not like the other species firmly grown animals living in colonies, but rather large individual polyps. They live sessile on a small stalk only in their youth . The polyp of the mushroom coral is called Anthocaulus at this stage. The stalk breaks off after a while and the single polyp lives freely in shallow water, on a sandy bottom.
Since they can easily be turned around, covered by sand or damaged by waves, currents or animals in this unusual habitat for corals, they have a high regenerative capacity and can free themselves from sand. If the polyp is broken, a new polyp can grow from any part. The corals can also multiply by forming daughter polyps on their side and pinching them off ( anthocauli formation ).
Like most other hard corals, all Fungiidae, with the exception of Fungiacyathus , which lives at greater depths, live in a symbiotic relationship with small algae ( zooxanthellae ), which supply the fungal corals with nutrients. You are therefore dependent on bright locations.
Fungal corals can also be cultivated in well-maintained saltwater aquariums . You need larger sand areas here.
Some species change sex during their ontogeny. Fungia repanda is male first when young and later becomes female ( protandry ). With Ctenactis echinata this process can be reversed again.
- Cantharellus Höksema et Best, 1984
- Ctenactis Agassiz in Verrill, 1864
- Cycloseris Milne-Edwards et Haime, 1849
- Diaseris Milne-Edwards et Haime, 1849
- Fungia Lamarck, 1801
- Halomitra Dana, 1846
- Heliofungia Wells, 1966
- Herpetoglossa Wells, 1966
- Herpolitha Eschscholtz, 1825
- Lithophyllon Rehberg, 1892
- Parahalomitra Wells, 1937
- Podabacia Milne-Edwards et Haime, 1849
- Polyphyllia Quoy et Gaimard in Blainville, 1830
- Sandalolitha Quelch, 1884
- Zoopilus Dana, 1846
- Julian Sprung: Korallen , Dähne Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-921684-87-0 .
- Svein A. Fossa / Alf Jacob Nilsen: Coral reef aquarium , Volume 4, Schmettkamp Verlag, 1995, ISBN 3-928819-05-4 .
- Hans A. Baensch / Robert A. Patzner: Mergus Sea Water Atlas Volumes 2, 4 + 5, Mergus-Verlag, Melle.
- Yossi Loya and Kazuhiko Sakai: Bidirectional sex change in mushroom stony corals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 275: 2335-2343, London 2008. doi : 10.1098 / rspb.2008.0675