A Protonaveta ( spanish also sepulcro de triple paramento , Catalan sepulcre de triple para ment about "triple wall tomb") is a Bronze Age tomb , exclusively on to Spain belonging to the Balearic island of Menorca occurs. The Protonaveta is the link between the Dolmen and the Naveta .
Protonavetas are similar to the older dolmens, but are significantly larger and have distinctive features that distinguish them from dolmens. They have a round outer wall made of large stone blocks and an oval chamber inside. There is a third wall between the inner and outer. The space between these walls is filled with small stones. The chamber is accessed through a short corridor and a small opening, which is formed by two posts on the side and has a threshold stone. The construction was - like the dolmen, but unlike the later navetas - covered with earth, so that a hemispherical hill was formed.
Protonavetas were used for collective burial . The period of their use is about 400 years between 1700 BC. BC and 1300 BC In the Protonaveta of Son Olivaret the skeletons of at least 128 individuals were found. Little is known about burial rituals . The bodies of the deceased were placed upside down in the chamber. They were covered by a kind of shroud or clothing held together by bone buttons that had been found in large numbers in a V-shape. After skeletonization, the skulls were rolled deeper into the chamber and the large bones pushed aside to make room for more corpses.
The discovery of the Protonaveta dates back to the first decade of the 21st century when excavations were carried out at Ses Arenes de Baix and Son Olivaret . Then the well-known tombs Son Ermità , Ferragut Nou , Son Salomó , Rafal des Capitá and Bellver Nou were identified as Protonavetas.
- Antoni Nicolau Martí, Elena Sintes Olives, Ricard Pla Boada, Albert Àlvarez Marsal: Talayotic Minorca . The prehistory of the island. Triangle Books, Sant Lluís 2015, ISBN 978-84-8478-640-5 (English).
- Sylvia Gili, Vicente Lull, Rafael Micó, Cristina Rihuete, Roberto Risch: An island decides: megalithic burial rites on Menorca (PDF; 448 kB). In: Antiquity . Volume 80, 2006, pp. 829-842 (English).
- Antoni Nicolau Martí, Elena Sintes Olives, Ricard Pla Boada, Albert Àlvarez Marsal: Talayotic Minorca . The prehistory of the island. Triangle Books, Sant Lluís 2015, ISBN 978-84-8478-640-5 , pp. 283 (English).
- Antoni Nicolau Martí, Elena Sintes Olives, Ricard Pla Boada, Albert Àlvarez Marsal: Talayotic Minorca . The prehistory of the island. Triangle Books, Sant Lluís 2015, ISBN 978-84-8478-640-5 , pp. 38 f . (English).
- Son Olivaret tomb on the Menorca Talayótica website, accessed on October 11, 2015 (English).
- Lluís Plantalamor Massanet, Montserrat Anglada Fontestad, Antoni Ferrer Rotger: Els aixovars dels sepulcres col·lectius de l'illa de Menorca: Elements de tradició Neolítica i Calcolítica i evidències de relacions amb l'exterior (PDF; 2.38 MB). In: Rubricatum Volume 5, 2012, pp. 433–440 (Catalan)
- José Simón Gornés Hachero: Sociedad y cambio en Menorca: sistematización de los contextos arqueológicos de las navetas funerarias entre el 1400 y el 850 CAL ANE , Barcelona 2016, ISBN 978-84-490-6612-2 (Dissertation Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona 2016 , Full text online ), p. 23 (Spanish)