Schaʿbān ( Arabic شعبان, DMG Šaʿbān ) is the name of the eighth month of the Islamic calendar . The previous month is Rajab , the following month is Ramadan . Together with these two months, the sha'ban is particularly valued in Islam. A statement attributed to the Prophet Mohammed reads: "The Rajab is the month of God, the Sha'bān is my month and Ramadan is the month of my community."
In pre-Islamic Arabia , the Shabān, which according to the old Arabic solar calendar was in summer, had a rank similar to Ramadan. The Prophet Mohammed observed a fast for several days that month. After the introduction of the compulsory fast in the month of Ramadan, the importance of the Sha'baan fast declined, but there are still Muslims who continue to practice this fast as a pious exercise. The basis for the Shabān fasting ( ṣiyām šaʿbān ) is the prophetic word handed down by an-Nasāʾī : “Standing between Rajab and Ramadan, one neglects him (sc. The Shaʿbān), while it is a month in which the deeds to the Lord of Worlds to be carried up. And since I want my works to be uplifted too, I fast. "
The festival Lailat al-barā'a (Persian: shab-i barāt) takes place on the night of the 14th to the 15th day of Shabbān. In the Shiite faith, the middle of the Sha'baan is also celebrated as the birthday of Imam Mahdi . In Cairo, the lawyer asch-Shāfiʿī is commemorated on the first of the month . For some, the fourth and sixth days of the month are considered negative.
- Meir Jacob Kister : "Shaʿbān is my month ..." A study of an early tradition. In: Joshua Blau et al. (Ed.): Studia Orientalia. Memoriae David Hartwig Baneth dedicata. Magnes Press et al., Jerusalem 1979, ISBN 965-223-325-0 , pp. 15-37.
- Klaus Lech: History of the Islamic Cult. Legal historical and ḥadīṯ-critical studies on the development and systematics of ʿIbādāt. Volume 1: The ramaḍān fast. Part 1. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1979. pp. 138-153. ISBN 3-447-01943-3 .
- Annemarie Schimmel : The Islamic Year. Times and festivals (= Beck'sche Reihe, 1441). CH Beck, Munich 2001. pp. 92-95. ISBN 3-406-47567-1 .
- Arent Jan Wensinck : Shaʿbān. In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume 9: San - Sze. New Edition, Reprint. Brill, Leiden 1997, ISBN 90-04-10422-4 , p. 154.
- ↑ Cf. Kister: "Shaʿbān is my month ..." In: Blau et al. (Ed.): Studia Orientalia. 1979, ISBN 965-223-325-0 , p. 37.
- ↑ Cf. Kister: "Shaʿbān is my month ..." In: Blau et al. (Ed.): Studia Orientalia. 1979, ISBN 965-223-325-0 , pp. 34-37.
- ↑ Quoted in Lech 138.