T 1 room

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In topology and related areas of mathematics , T 1 spaces are special topological spaces that have certain pleasant properties. The T 1 axiom is an example of a separation axiom .


Let X be a topological space . X is called T 1 -space if for any two points each has a neighborhood in which the other does not lie. To delimit: In a T Raum-room only one of the two points must have such an environment, in a T₂-room the two environments must be disjoint. It is also said that a T 1 space has a Fréchet topology . In this context, the term Fréchet space , which is a term from functional analysis , should be avoided .


Let X be a topological space. The following statements are equivalent:

  • X is a T 1 space.
  • X is a Kolmogoroff space and an R 0 space .
  • All single point sets in X are closed .
  • Every finite set is closed.
  • Any set with finite complement is open.
  • Every elementary filter for any x only converges to x .
  • For every subset S of X it holds that an element x from X is an accumulation point of S if and only if every open neighborhood of x contains an infinite number of elements.

The following implications always apply in topological spaces

separated ⇒ topologically distinguishable ⇒ disjoint

If the first arrow can be reversed, it is an R 0 space , and precisely in a T 0 space this also applies to the second implication. This shows that a topological space satisfies T 1 if and only if it is both an R 0 -space and a T 0 -space.


The Zariski topology on an algebraic variety (in the classical sense) is T 1 . To see this we consider a point with a local coordinate . The associated one-point set is the set of zeros of the polynomials . The point is thus closed.

For another example, consider the cofinite topology on a countable set, such as the set of integers . As an open set, we define exactly the empty set and the sets with finite complement. So you have all the shape with a finite set A . Now let x and y be two different points. The set is an open set that contains x and y does not. On the other hand, the element y does not contain x . It is therefore actually a T 1 space. But this can also be deduced from the fact that one-element sets are closed. However, this space is not a T 2 space. Because for two finite sets A and B holds what can never be empty. Furthermore, the set of even numbers is compact but not closed, which can never be the case in a T 2 space.

More generally, for every topological space that satisfies the T 1 axiom, its topology already includes the cofinite topology. The co-finite topology is thus the coarsest T 1 topology on a set.