Pre-study institutions were institutions in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany , with which the so-called working class was guaranteed. The workers and farmers faculties emerged from them in 1949 .
Establishment of the pre-study institutions
At the beginning of 1946, the local associations of the block parties KPD , SPD , CDU and LDP as well as the FDGB in Leipzig issued an appeal ( workers at the university ), in which a change in the social composition of the German student body was called for. The call was in favor of introducing as many workers as possible without higher education to a university degree. According to this call, there were two ways to enable university access: the gifted examination and the workers' faculty.
While the workers' faculty was based on the idea of a limited time-limited preparation of the workers for university studies, the gifted test was intended to determine the general mental maturity for attending the lecture, thus enabling a direct transition to university .
In the course of 1946 all the countries of the Soviet occupation zone organized courses for the preparation of workers for higher education. These events were later given the uniform name of the pre-study institute. They represented the beginnings of workers' studies.
The first course in college preparation for workers began in March 1946. It was limited to seven months (March 1 to September 30, 1946).
During the preparation period, the course participants' professional activity was limited to a maximum of 30 hours per week. The course was financed by granting scholarships from state institutions, political parties and other mass organizations .
Conversion of the pre-study institutions into pre-study departments
In December 1947, the national education ministers of the countries of the Soviet zone of occupation decided to convert the preparatory schools into preparatory departments and to incorporate them into the universities . From the fact that the pre-study institutes become pre-study departments, i. H. were declared institutions of the universities - but they were not yet granted the status of a faculty - it was concluded that the students of the preparatory study departments were granted or imposed the same rights and obligations as the enrolled students .
With the enrollment guideline of the German Central Administration for National Education of April 12, 1948 it was determined that graduates of the pre-study institutions as well as children of workers, small farmers and victims of National Socialism should be given preferential admission to higher education institutions in the Soviet occupation zone. Representatives of the student councils protested against this guideline at the universities . The protest was broken by the arrest of senior student officials. The chairman of the student council at Leipzig University, Wolfgang Natonek , was also among those arrested .
In May 1949, the pre-study departments were elevated to the rank of faculties. These were named Worker and Peasant Faculties (ABF) .
- Hans Georg Gadamer: Workers studies and university. In: Culture and Criticism, Heft 6, Leipzig 1994, pp. 112–122.
- Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk: Spirit in the service of power. University policy in the Soviet Zone / GDR 1945–1961. Christoph Links Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-86153-296-4 . ( Online version )
- Konrad Krause: Alma mater Lipsiensis. History of the University of Leipzig from 1409 to the present. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-936522-65-0 . ( Online version )
- Reiner Pommerin : 175 years of TU Dresden. Volume 1: History of the TU Dresden 1828–2003. Edited on behalf of the Society of Friends and Supporters of the TU Dresden e. V. von Reiner Pommerin, Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2003, ISBN 3-412-02303-5 .
- Herbert Stallmann: University entrance in the SBZ / GDR 1945–1959. Richarz, Sankt Augustin 1980, ISBN 3-88345-600-4 .
- Gottfried Uhlig : The beginning of the anti-fascist-democratic school reform in East Germany 1945-1946. Leipzig 1963.
- Rudolf Urban: The Organization of Science in Czechoslovakia. Herder Institute, Marburg / Lahn 1957.
- Konrad Krause: Alma mater Lipsiensis. History of the University of Leipzig from 1409 to the present. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2003, p. 594, ISBN 3-936522-65-0 .