In the hunter's language , hunting justice or pasture justice denotes behavioral norms that represent a code of honor for hunters or anglers . In some jurisdictions, such as Germany and Austria, the term also has a legal meaning due to legal norms.
Word origin and spelling
The first part of the term has, like other hunting compounds with weid , the Indo-European root uid with the meaning "get food", which became Old High German weida , later Middle and New High German weid , from which the term Weideland emerged . The ei spelling can thus be regarded as the better from an etymological point of view, since it is the original and makes clear the relation of the word weid to the acquisition of food.
The newer ai spelling of the term spread through its use in the German Reichsjagdgesetz (Reichsjagdgesetz) issued in 1934, where it was supposed to symbolize the new beginning associated with the introduction of the law, and it still enjoys one in Germany today , especially in official announcements by the German Hunting Association (DJV) certain popularity. The Federal Hunting Act , with (“the generally recognized principles of German grazing justice”), as well as the hunting laws of the Austrian federal states and German-speaking cantons of Switzerland, use the old ei spelling , which is more common according to Duden .
The second part of the word just can also be found in other hunting terms such as tracking or deer and refers to doing something “right”.
The combination of the two parts of the word first appeared in a hunting textbook in 1801, but only became common towards the end of the 19th century.
The concept of pasture justice has entered the hunting laws in Germany as an indefinite legal concept . Thus, the non-writing standardized rules of Weidgerechtigkeit be considered compatible with practices comparable common law and develop it into law. The term was first introduced into the legal language in 1934 as “German hunting justice” in Section 4 of the Reich Hunting Act . Even today it can be found, for example, in the Federal Hunting Act : "When hunting, the generally recognized principles of German grazing justice must be observed."
Many of the rules of pastoral justice, which were initially widespread as hunting customs, are now reflected in written form in laws. In Germany, for example, the shotgun shot at deer is prohibited under Federal Hunting Act , unlike in Switzerland and Sweden; it is no longer considered appropriate for pasture.
According to the German Hunting Association , the term “grazing justice” today relates to three aspects: “The animal welfare aspect concerns the hunter's attitude towards animals as fellow creatures, who are to be spared avoidable pain. The environmental aspect requires the hunter to include the environment in its entirety in his thoughts and actions. The human aspect concerns the decent behavior towards other hunters and the non-hunting population. "
The state hunting laws in Austria are formulated in a similar way:the Lower Austrian Hunting Act 1974 reads, for example: "Hunting is to be practiced in a manner that is generally recognized as suitable for pasture and observing the principles of an orderly hunting economy."
In Switzerland, grazing justice is mentioned in the law of German-speaking cantons, for example in Art. 14 Bern Hunting Law: Art. 14 Pasture justice. The hunters take every care to save the animal unnecessary torment and disturbance and to preserve its dignity. In particular, you are responsible for a timely and professional search . The game rangers can be called in to help with the search .
- Ilse Haseder , Gerhard Stinglwagner : Knaurs Großes Jagdlexikon , Augsburg 2000, keyword: woad justice, ISBN 3-8289-1579-5 .
- Kurt Lindner : Suitable for pasture. Origin, history and content. Homo venator, Volume 2. Habelt, Bonn 1979, ISBN 3-7749-1691-8 .
- Jägermagazin 6/2013, cover story: On the edge of society, p. 28.
- Alexander Schwab: Values change pasture justice , 2011, Salm-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-7262-1426-5 .
- Maximilian Weinrich: Pasture Justice: About a historical legal term and its contemporary application . In: Nature and Law. Volume 41, No. 5, May 2019, ISSN 0172-1631 , pp. 314-321, doi : 10.1007 / s10357-019-3519-2 .
- pasture justice, especially technical language pasture justice, the. In: Duden. Retrieved January 17, 2019 .
- Elmar Seebold: Etymological dictionary of the German language . Friedrich Kluge. 22nd edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-11-006800-1 , p. 783 ( google.de [accessed January 17, 2019]).
- Lutz Mackensen: Origin of words: The etymological dictionary of the German language . 1st edition. Bassermann, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-641-64140-5 , p. 439 ( google.de [accessed January 17, 2019]).
- Sigrid Schwenk: Terms from the hunter's language: Pasture justice . In: Hunting in Bavaria . No. 12 , 2007, p. 23 ( jagd-bayern.de [PDF; accessed on January 15, 2019]).
- Georg Ludwig Hartig: Lexicon for hunters and hunting enthusiasts or hunted conversation lexicon . Ed .: Theodor Hartig. 2nd Edition. Nicolai, Berlin 1861, p. 591 ( google.de [accessed on January 14, 2019]).
- Weideland, das. In: Duden. Retrieved January 17, 2019 .
- Willow, the. In: Duden. Retrieved January 17, 2019 .
- Konrad Duden: The German orthography: treatise, rules and dictionary with etymological information - for the upper classes of higher educational institutions and for self-instruction for the educated . Teubner, Leipzig 1872, p. 159 , Weidmann, Weidwerk .
- Klaus Schriewer: Nature and Consciousness: A Contribution to the Cultural History of the Forest in Germany . Waxmann, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-8309-8292-0 , pp. 129 .
- Helmut Goeser: History of the Federal Hunting Act . Reg.-No .: WF VG 192/03. Ed .: Scientific Services of the German Bundestag. Berlin October 1, 2004, p. 3 ( bundestag.de [PDF; accessed on January 14, 2019]).
- Mathilde Hennig (Ed.): Duden - The dictionary of linguistic doubtful cases: Correct and good German . 8th edition. tape 9 . Dudenverlag, 2016, ISBN 978-3-411-91239-1 , p. 1014 : "The noun, like the corresponding compound words (Weidmannsheil, Weidwerk, Weidsack, Weidspruch etc.) is generally written with ei."
- Wilhelm Bode: On the application, legal history and etymology of the "recognized principles of German pasture justice" according to Section 1 (3) BJagdG , in: Agricultural and Environmental Law, 45th year, issue 3, pp. 82–93; the same: "The recognized principles of German grazing justice" according to. § 1 Abs. 3 BJagdG - a Trojan horse of the national legal renewal in German hunting law? in: Yearbook of Agricultural Law, Volume XIII, 2015 (2016), pp. 33–121.
- Injury justice. Presidium of the German Hunting Association, June 19, 2000, accessed on July 15, 2016 .
- Art. 14 Bern Hunting Law