Web development

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As a web development ( english Web development ) refers to the software development of web applications , web services , or other complex sites . The creators and developers of web applications are called web developers. The layout and design , on the other hand, is usually done by web designers .


The technologies used in web development changed in parallel with the development of the Internet. From around 1992 to 1999, static HTML pages dominated . In the early 2000s, dynamic websites emerged that were implemented using server side scripting in programming languages ​​such as Perl or PHP . Today (February 2018) PHP and ASP.NET dominate the server-side programming languages .

For interactive websites, O'Reilly coined the not exactly defined term Web 2.0 .

In 1997 JavaScript was standardized and implemented in Netscape Navigator 3. From 2005, JavaScript began to outstrip server-side scripting languages. Another boost came from the introduction of AJAX (asynchronous data transfer between browser and server). At the end of 2008, Google released the JavaScript implementation V8 , which came up with a superior execution speed. This started a race among browser manufacturers for the fastest JavaScript implementation. In 2009, Node.js was released, which made server-side JavaScript popular and widely used today. In the following years, JavaScript was continuously developed (e.g. ES2015 ).

Technologies that have become meaningless are Adobe Flash and Java applets . From the early 2000s to around 2010, Flash played an important role in delivering multimedia and interactive content on the web. Java applets were introduced in 1997 and officially deprecated in 2015.

Differentiation from classic software development

Web applications differ from classic software in some aspects. The differences to software technology are based in particular on the use of hypermedia documents, which together with the browser form the user interfaces, as well as the underlying network architecture with client / server paradigm, HTTP or TCP / IP protocol and address resolution via the Domain Name System . At the conceptual level, this concerns the navigation within the application and the presentation of the content. Web applications also require user models, since document-based or system-based user management is not common in the WWW and every application has to ensure user identification itself - if it is necessary. On the technical level, web applications are characterized by the interaction of very different technologies (e.g. HTTP, PHP , HTML , CSS , JavaScript , Java , XML , SQL, etc.), which can work on different system platforms on the client side. At the process level, web engineering also requires the maintenance and servicing of the software to be included, as subsequent changes and adjustments are common here.

Model-based processes in web engineering usually extend classic modeling to include models for navigation, presentation and users. For the graphic notation of the models, UML is also the standard here, which is expanded accordingly for the requirements of the WWW. However, not all model aspects can be mapped well with UML, such as B. the presentation model, for which other means such as storyboards must be used.

The special application and research areas include the semantic web , cloud computing , mobile apps , usability , web information retrieval and web service engineering.


The majority of web development nowadays takes place using web frameworks . Well-known server-side frameworks are Ruby on Rails and Django . Popular JavaScript frameworks are React , Angular and Vue.js .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Colyn Emery: A Brief History of Web Development , Techopedia.com
  2. Kevin Yank: Which Server-Side Language Is Right For You? , October 9, 2001
  3. Overview of Web 2.0
  4. ^ Charles Severance: JavaScript: Designing a Language in 10 Days , Computer, February 2012
  5. Lynn Greiner: PHP, JavaScript, Ruby, Perl, Python, and Tcl Today: The State of the Scripting Universe , CIO, August 29, 2008
  6. ^ Esther Schindler: Beyond Ajax: Software Development, Two Years from Now , CIO, November 30, 2007
  7. Browser was centers on once-obscure JavaScript . In: CNET . March 20, 2009.
  8. ^ TJ Fogarty: A Brief History of Web Development. February 26, 2018, accessed February 2, 2018 .
  9. ^ Max Slater-Robbins: The long and painful death of Flash . In: TechRadar . July 25, 2017.
  10. Michael Byrne: The Rise and Fall of the Java Applet: Creative Coding's Awkward Little Square . In: Motherboard (Vice) . February 2, 2016.
  11. Jens Neuhaus: Angular vs. React vs. Vue: A 2017 comparison , August 28, 2017