Nude Psychology

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The Aktpsychologie called one on Franz Brentano (1838-1917) declining flow philosophical and psychological thinking, the traditions of medieval scholasticism anknüpfte. The concept of activity is one of these traditions . All psychological approaches of the 19th and 20th centuries that assume the primacy of consciousness and thus a psychology of consciousness and also see the psychological as sufficiently characterized by the reference of "acts" as process-related conditions to their objects can be understood as act psychology .

Its main term is intentionality (from the Latin intentio = intention, tension, exertion, attention, worry, plan) according to which psychological phenomena represent acts that are directed at objects , but do not correspond to them ("intentional non-existence of objects") . According to Brentano, the psychic act as the intentional directionality of consciousness is determined by the psychic contents, i.e. H. the objects to which human consciousness is directed.

Brentano names the three classes of psychic phenomena in which the intentional inexistence of an object is realized on different levels

When Brentano titled his main work Psychology from the empirical point of view , he understands by empiricism or experience exclusively the so-called inner perception as direct experience .

School representative

Brentano's student Carl Stumpf (1848–1936) continued this approach. He calls the psychic processes "functions", their reference poles " appearances ". On the one hand, this takes account of the empirical point of view, as it had gained attention in functionalism , on the other hand, it overcomes a purely materialistic point of view that did not grant recognition to various psychological layers and structures. - Alois Höfler (1853–1922) is also counted among the representatives of the school.

Nude psychology pioneered the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) and the understanding psychology of Wilhelm Dilthey (1833–1911).


  • Franz Brentano: Psychology from the empirical point of view . (Vol. 1: 1874, Vol. 2: 1911, Vol. 3: 1928). Reprint: Hamburg, 1968–73.
  • Edmund Husserl: Logical Investigations . 2 vols., Halle, 1900 f.
  • Carl Stumpf: Appearances and Mental Functions . Dep. Kgl.-Prussia. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1906.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Heinrich Schmidt : Philosophical Dictionary (= Kröner's pocket edition. 13). 21st edition, revised by Georgi Schischkoff . Alfred Kröner, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-520-01321-5 :
    (a) p. 320 on the lemma "intentionality",
    (b) p. 10 on the lemma "act psychology".
  2. a b c Wilhelm Karl Arnold et al. (Ed.): Lexicon of Psychology . Bechtermünz, Augsburg 1996, ISBN 3-86047-508-8 :
    (a) Sp. 48 f. to Lemma “Activity”;
    (b) Col. 49 on lemma “nude psychology”.