Band ceramic fountain by Plaussig
The Plaußig ribbon ceramic fountain was discovered by the State Office for Archeology in Saxony in the course of the development of the future BMW site in Leipzig - Plaußig in 2001 in the middle of a ribbon ceramic settlement. With an age of about 5300 BC. BC it is one of the earliest evidence of the band ceramic well construction .
Archaeological findings and recovery
This ceramic band settlement was at least three hectares in size and comprised more than 30 house floor plans. Due to the overlapping house floor plans and the wide range of ceramics, one can conclude that there were several settlement phases. A well in the center served as a water supply. Due to the great time pressure after the discovery, the well shaft was secured by means of block salvage in 2002 . In the Dresden State Office for Archeology, the fountain was exposed and restored under the best laboratory conditions. The well shaft in Leipzig-Plaußig is the oldest well in Germany. According to a dendrochronological dating, the oldest built planks, consisting of oak, were removed in the winter of 5259/58 BC. And used a few weeks later. Up to 230 years old oaks were the raw material source of the built planks. The well was created in a clay lens that was 4.5 meters deep. Similar to other ceramic fountain systems, a wooden shaft was built in here, and a smaller wooden shaft indicated that the fountain was being replaced. Keeping the well humid up to the present day preserved organic materials.
In the first step, the well system was separated from the surrounding sediments. The unstable structure was stabilized with several layers of wrapping foil and cavities were filled with styrofoam and construction foam. Due to the weather, a steel plate was used to secure the base in addition to the pipe socket. A construction of T-beams in the pipes and across them enabled the 21-tonne well to be lifted.
The well was recorded using a total station . This enables the construction timber and all finds in the well to be measured and measured relatively quickly. Since the woods were sealed off from oxygen for thousands of years, the now inevitable contact with air had to be counteracted by dusting them with water. After careful excavation and surveying, it was possible to create a 3-D model and rebuild the well. Remains of organic origin were found on the ground, identified as raffia remains and cords, as well as a clay vessel encased in a raffia net.
At the fountain you can see the sophisticated carpenter technique of the band ceramic people. The timbers of the lowest layer were joined with tenon joints . This provides additional stabilization. From old construction elements and traces of fire, one could conclude that old, already used planks were also used for the renovation of the well, the younger wooden box. The planks of the old wooden shaft were even dismantled and used. Due to the reused old timbers and the new use of less optimal planks, one can conclude that there was a shortage of suitable timbers at this time, in contrast to the first construction.
Numerous finds from the Plaussig well excavation are part of the archaeological permanent exhibition in the State Museum of Archeology in Chemnitz .
- Harald Stäuble: Stone Age beyond the stones. In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft 3/2010, pp. 62–69.
- State Office for Archeology Saxony (PDF; 876 kB) : “ Bandkeramischer Brunnen, Leipzig-Plaußig: infinite well as far as we know. "