Bash kebab

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Photo of Abkhazians in the 1860s with bashlik

Baschlik (from Turkish baş "head") is a hooded cap with two long tips that can be wrapped around the neck like a scarf . The bash kebab is usually made of wool , more rarely cotton or sheepskin turned inwards and is occasionally decorated on the outside.

The bash kebab is traditionally used as protection against cold and storms over the helmet or over the papacha by the peoples of the Caucasus , especially the North Caucasus , and some equestrian peoples of the Eurasian steppe belt bordering to the north, e.g. B. the Nogaiern . The Russian-Ukrainian Cossacks took over the bashlik from these peoples by the 18th century at the latest . Today the bash kebab is a traditional item of clothing, mainly for the peoples of the Caucasus and Cossacks.

The word itself comes from Turkic languages and is derived from Basch "head", meaning something like "the heady", that which is carried on the head.

It was probably brought to Germany by Russian Cossacks during the wars of liberation at the beginning of the 19th century , is mentioned in Thomas Mann's Buddenbrooks and Dora Hohlfeld's Die poor Josefa and can already be found on Persian reliefs in Persepolis .

Greek representation of a Scythian with a Scythian cap around 500 BC. Chr.

Medieval manuscripts already show members of some historical steppe peoples, such as the Khazars , Pechenegs or Kyptschaks , with bashlik.

The origins of this headgear can possibly be traced back to the oldest equestrian nomad peoples in antiquity . The Scythians are almost always shown in ancient representations with such hoods, which were then called Scythian hats or Phrygian hats . Ancient Persians and the god Mithras were also often depicted with this cap. In contrast to the Phrygians (whose bonnets were often not made of wool) the long tips were already widespread among the Scythians. The Central Asian saks, which are related to the Scythians, used similar, but mostly much higher, hoods, as ancient representations and archaeological finds show. Due to the very poor evidence of the South Russian-Caucasian region in some epochs, a complete continuity from the Scythian hat to the bash kebab cannot be proven with certainty, but Achaemenid research assumes a continuity and often designates this ancient headgear with the (younger ) Word bash kebab .

Web links

Commons : Bashlyks  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Amjad M. Jaimoukha: The Chechens: a handbook. New York 2005. (English), p. 142.
  2. ^ Walter Kerr: The Russian Army: Its Men, Its Leaders and Its Battles. Washington 1944, pp. 62-63.
  3. See e.g. B. Heidemarie Koch: Achaemenid studies. Wiesbaden 1993, pp. 118-134, where the headgear of the relief statues of Persepolis are described