Supervision key

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In the field of childcare or social work, the care code or personnel code is an indication of the number of people who are available to care for other people. It is usually given as a numerical ratio (1: n) to indicate that on average one carer is available for n supervised persons.

In the field of care, the corresponding numerical ratio is referred to as the care key , in other areas of activity as the person key or personnel key . In relation to the school, one speaks of the class size .

The qualification of the supervisor always plays a decisive role in the specifications for the supervision key.



Legal requirements for the supervision key
place Age group Art specification Date
Berlin 3 to school enrollment Full-time 1: 9 13th June 2013
Berlin 2 to 3 Full-time 1: 6 13th June 2013
Berlin Elementary school age Hoard 1: 22 13th June 2013
Bremen crib 1: 3.1 4th July 2013
Hesse under 3 0.2 = 2:10 KiföG 2013
Hesse 3 to school enrollment 0.07 = 1.75: 25 KiföG 2013
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania under 3 1: 6 KiföG MV
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 3 to school enrollment 1: 15 KiföG MV
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Elementary school age 1: 22 KiföG MV
North Rhine-Westphalia 2 until school entry 2:20 KiBiz NRW
North Rhine-Westphalia under 3 2:10 KiBiz NRW
North Rhine-Westphalia from 3 1: 25 as well as a supplementary force KiBiz NRW
Saxony-Anhalt under 3 0.18 KiföG Sn-Anh. (from Aug. 1, 2015)
Saxony-Anhalt from 3 0.08 = 2:25 4. KiföG Sn-Anh.
Saxony crib 1: 5 January 7, 2016 § 12 SächsKitaG
Saxony 3 to 6 1:12 January 7, 2016 § 12 SächsKitaG
Saxony Hoard 0.9: 20 (1: 22) January 7, 2016 § 12 SächsKitaG

In addition to the care key, the skilled worker -child ratio , the group size and the qualification of the staff (“iron triangle of structural quality ” according to Susanne Viernickel ) are important for the quality of child care. For this purpose, it can be specified, for example, that a specified number of people with a certain educational level should be employed for a certain number of children, for example partly trained as educators , partly as nannies or, for example, in an internship or apprenticeship or doing a voluntary social year . Within Germany, the requirements for care codes vary greatly between the federal states. Time proportions for representation in the event of illness, vacation and further training as well as management activities and indirect pedagogical work (preparation and follow-up, discussions with parents, team meetings and more) are specified very differently or not at all.

The following methods are used to define these requirements:

  • Group-related number of skilled workers
  • Child-related specialist-child relationship

In the group-related definition, as it applies in North Rhine-Westphalia, for example, a number of specialists is specified who look after a group with a specified minimum and maximum number of children. From this arithmetically the specialist hours result.

With the child-related definition, as it applies in Saxony-Anhalt, for example, the arithmetical ratio of specialist hours per child to be looked after is determined. The mathematically calculated specialist hours are therefore dependent on the number of children.

Which method is to be regarded as the more technically suitable is politically very controversial. The changeover from the group-oriented minimum regulation to the child-related HessKiföG in Hesse in 2013 was accompanied by fierce controversies and public demonstrations by parents and educators.

The professional association of paediatricians (BVKJ) determined in March 2009 that the current childcare key in German day-care centers no longer meets international standards. For example, the group size for children under three should be limited to a maximum of twelve children; Within this group size, a key of 1: 2 is required for infants between nine and twelve months, a key of 1: 3 for small children between 12 and 24 months and a key of 1: 4 for children between 24 and 36 months.

The German Children's Fund noted in its catalog of demands to combat child poverty in Germany : “Generally speaking, there are already benchmarks for group sizes at EU level: for example, one educator for five children should be the rule across the EU by 2010 for small children. Standards that are already the norm in Scandinavia, for example. ”The minimum standards of the European Union

  • One specialist for 3 children up to 1.5 years
  • One specialist for 4 children up to 3 years
  • One specialist for 8 children between the ages of 3 and school entry

were also discussed in the discussion about the controversial Hessian "Child Promotion Act", but not implemented in the law.


Personnel key by full-time equivalents
(March 1, 2017)
country under 3 years 2 to 8 years
Baden-Württemberg 3.1 6.9
Bavaria 3.7 8.3
Berlin 5.9 8.3
Brandenburg 5.8 10.3
Bremen 3.3 7.4
Hamburg 5.2 8.2
Hesse 3.9 9.3
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 6.0 12.8
Lower Saxony 3.8 8.0
North Rhine-Westphalia 3.7 8.1
Rhineland-Palatinate 3.5 7.8
Saarland 3.8 9.4
Saxony 6.4 12.4
Saxony-Anhalt 5.8 10.5
Schleswig-Holstein 3.7 8.1
Thuringia 5.4 10.6
Germany 4.3 8.6

The Federal Statistical Office defines the personnel key according to a standardized calculation of the full-time equivalents of the children in care (full-time care equivalents) and those working in pedagogy in the day-care center (full-time employment equivalents) for the various types of group. The basis for this are daycare centers with a fixed group structure. Since March 1, 2012, the childcare times have been recorded directly as a decimal number. The calculation method with the care mean value used until 2011 was abolished because of the inaccuracies and distortions involved.

Details of the calculation method are described in the article Personnel key calculation in Germany , where the difference to the skilled worker-child ratio is explained.

According to the statistics of child and youth welfare (reference date March 1, 2017), a nationwide mean care ratio of 1: 8.6 in the age group of 2- to 8-year-old children and one of 1: 4.3 in the age group of determined under 3-year-old children. The table opposite shows the situation in the individual federal states. The value in other European countries roughly corresponds to the national average. According to a survey by the VDKA, the childcare ratio in German kindergartens in other European countries is 1: 8.36.

According to a study commissioned by the Bertelsmann Stiftung, the mean care ratio in 2020 was 1: 8.8 in the age group of 2- to 8-year-old children and 1: 4.2 in the age group of children under 3 years of age.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c daily mirror
  2. Care key study - Bremen day care centers are well positioned in comparison - radiobremen ( Memento from July 6, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Care key study - Bremen day care centers are well positioned in comparison ( memento from 6 July 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  3. a b § 25 c and § 25 d, HKJGB , accessed on May 30, 2020.
  4. Section 11a, Paragraph 1 of the KiföG MV 2017
  5. a b c d cf. Annex to Section 19 of the Children's Education Act (KiBiz) in North Rhine-Westphalia , accessed on November 10, 2019
  6. a b cf. Section 21, Child Promotion Act (KiFöG) in Saxony-Anhalt , accessed on February 13, 2015
  7. quoted from Stefan Sell: "Skilled worker-child relationship and personnel key as central adjusting screws for quality-oriented further development of day-care facilities", Remagen, 2010 , accessed on June 6, 2015
  8. Country overview Kita: personnel standards table (as of September 2009) (PDF; 105 kB) and overview
  9. ^ Minimum ordinance for daycare centers from 2009 , accessed on February 13, 2015
  10. FAZ: "Hessen - Landtag adopts Child Promotion Act" , accessed on February 13, 2015
  11. Birgitta vom Lehn: Stress in the crib. Essay. World online. October 11, 2011
  12. More staff in the daycare centers! Pediatricians consider care codes to be out of date. March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009 .
  13. ^ Deutsches Kinderhilfswerk: Catalog of demands to combat child poverty in Germany , Section 5 ( Memento of February 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on February 13, 2015
  14. cf. also Angelika Ehrhardt, March 7, 2013
  15. a b Federal Statistical Office: "The personnel key in day care centers for children 2017", pages 7 and 8 , accessed on September 17, 2018
  16. Federal Statistical Office: "The staff key in day care centers", 2012, page 5, "Methodology of the new staff key calculation" , accessed on May 30, 2015
  17. Directory of German Kindergartens Abroad (VDKA), Foreign Kindergarten Review 2014/15
  18. Silke Fokken: Study on early childhood education: 1.7 million children in daycare centers “not child-friendly” cared for. In: August 25, 2020, accessed August 25, 2020 .