Biological agent or biological matter is a term from the Biological Agents Ordinance . In the new version of the Biological Agents Ordinance of July 15, 2013, the term biological agent is preferred . In the Biological Agents Ordinance, biological agents are defined as follows:
"Biological substances are microorganisms , cell cultures and endoparasites including their genetically modified forms [...] which can endanger humans through infections , communicable diseases, toxin formation , sensitizing or other health-damaging effects." ( Biological Agents Ordinance)
This group also includes pathogens causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies . The biomaterials are also the ectoparasites treated as if they "can cause cause in humans independent disease or sensitizing or toxic effects." ( Biostoffverordnung) Furthermore, "engineered biological entities with new properties" treated as biomaterials in case of them a threat of man goes out.
The terms listed above are further defined in the Biological Agents Ordinance. According to this, "microorganisms are all cellular or non-cellular microscopic or sub- microscopic biological units that are capable of multiplying or passing on genetic material, in particular bacteria , viruses , protozoa and fungi ." ( Biological Agents Ordinance) and "cell cultures are in-vitro - increased cells that have been isolated from multicellular organisms. ”( Biological Agents Ordinance) These can be cells obtained from plants or animals that are cultivated outside the source organism.
Toxins are defined as metabolic products or cell constituents of biological substances that " cause toxic effects in humans as a result of inhalation, ingestion or absorption through the skin and can thus cause acute or chronic damage to health or death." ( Biological Agents Ordinance) are examples of such toxins the botulinum toxin (an exotoxin , the bacterium of the botulinum Clostridium is produced), the cholera toxin , which of Vibrio cholerae is released or the Shiga toxin of the bacterium Shigella dysenteriae .
Biological substances can endanger the health of employees in the workplace . The Technical Rule for Biological Agents (TRBA) 405 contains general information on the use of measurement methods for airborne biological agents. Measurement methods for determining exposure to mold , bacteria and endotoxins are published in the IFA work folder Measurement of Hazardous Substances .
- Biological agents Topic page of the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA)
- A. Kolk: Method for determining the mold concentration in the air at the workplace. Accessed January 30, 2020 .
- A. Kolk: Method for determining the bacterial concentration in the air at the workplace. Accessed January 30, 2020 .
- G. Linsel, A. Kolk: Method for determining the endotoxin concentration in the air at the workplace. Accessed January 30, 2020 .