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The soil type describes the grain size composition of the mineral soil substance. Usually it is only related to the " fine soil " (grain diameter 2 mm and smaller), the " soil skeleton ", i. H. all mineral or rock fragments with a diameter of more than 2 mm are not taken into account. According to the system common in Germany, a distinction is made between the main types of soil sand , silt , clay and loam as a mixture of sand, silt and clay.
The soil type describes horizon sequences in the soil profile in which similar chemical and physical changes have produced matching features and thus similar horizons and horizon combinations.