Service quality

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Service quality (also service quality ) is the degree of quality of a service in business administration . The contrast is the product quality .


The specialist literature defines service quality as the "ability of a provider to create the nature of a primarily intangible service that requires customer participation on the basis of customer expectations at a certain level of requirements". The customer expectations and the service actually provided are thus opposed to each other. The service quality can relate to the service potential , the service process or the service result . So under potential quality z. B. the qualification of employees can be understood under process quality z. B. the speed of service provision and under result quality z. B. the extent to which the performance corresponded to customer satisfaction .

The term quality can be adapted for different types of services, e.g. B. if the quality of electronic services is to be recorded.


In terms of service quality, a distinction is made between objective and subjective service quality:

  • Objective service quality is the concretely measurable correspondence of the work result with the previously defined benefit ; Since the measurability depends essentially on the accuracy of the definition of target requirements, a supposedly measurable quality criterion can easily turn out to be a subjective one.
  • Subjective service quality is the consistency of the work result perceived by the client with the intended benefit; This sensation is overlaid by the initial idea of ​​the client and the skill of the service provider to positively "sell" the work result.

In addition, a defined result can turn out to be unachievable. Then the best possible achievable result would be the objectively optimal, but subjectively nonetheless unsatisfactory result of a service.

Service quality criteria

Quality measurement

The quality measurement carried out in quality management is divided into subjective and objective procedures. Objective procedures are further subdivided into primary and secondary procedures.

  • In the primary procedure, for example, test purchases are carried out by so-called mystery shoppers or normal customers are observed.
  • In the case of secondary measurement, quantifiable company figures are analyzed, for example the number of complaints or the return rate , and conclusions on the quality are made from this.

The subjective procedures are divided into feature-oriented, event-oriented and problem-oriented procedures.


The service quality is therefore composed of several factors. For example, companies can align a certain contingent of their organization with the service in the organizational area. B. Complaint departments or hotlines . Companies can further the well through the design of their terms and conditions to continue the idea of service; z. B. Goodwill regulations and broad exchange conditions . The real purpose of service quality is competitiveness, including the goal of customer satisfaction (maintaining a customer base ).

See also


  • Marc-Oliver Kaiser: Customer satisfaction as a success factor. Dimensions and measurement options (= business studies. Vol. 64). 2nd, revised and expanded edition. E. Schmidt, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-503-07833-9 .

Individual evidence

  1. Manfred Bruhn, Wirtschaftlichkeit des Qualitätmanagements , 1997, p. 27
  2. Critical Incidents Analysis on ( Memento of the original from February 3, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved October 13, 2011. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /