Dublin Core

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sample data set from the work My Catalonia by George Orwell

Dublin Core is a bibliographic data format .

More precisely, it is a collection of simple and standardized conventions for describing documents and other objects on the Internet in order to make them easier to find with the help of metadata . The originator of this scheme is the "Dublin Core Metadata Initiative" (DCMI).

The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)

The DCMI was founded in 1994 on the sidelines of a World Wide Web conference in Chicago. Some people interested in information description and indexing decided there to organize a conference on these topics. This conference, in March 1995 in Dublin / Ohio took place was, according to the organizing bodies, the Online Computer Library Center and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications , OCLC / NCSA Metadata Workshop called. During this conference, the approximately 50 participants agreed on a basic set of descriptive terms for the categorization of web resources and named this metadata set after the conference location Dublin Core metadata.

This metadata schema should enable authors of web resources to describe their resources in such a way that they can, for example, be found by keyword-based search engines. As the scheme quickly attracted the attention of libraries, museums, etc., this initiative evolved into an international agreement on a core set of metadata.

The DCMI has a number of specialized working groups (“communities”). Participation in these working groups is voluntary and free of charge. Employees of the organizations who are interested in the further development and dissemination of metadata standards are involved. The work of these groups is guided by a small group called the Directorate. The directorate is supported by a kind of supervisory board (Board of Trustees). In addition, there are advisory bodies, the Advisory Board, which essentially consists of the heads of the working groups and external experts, and the Usage Board, whose task is to develop adequate terminology for the metadata categories.

The current tasks of the DCMI are the further development and maintenance of the metadata schema, the development of tools and infrastructures that facilitate the administration and maintenance of metadata and the dissemination of knowledge and knowledge about metadata through training, etc.

Dublin core elements

The following 15 core fields core elements are recommended as "Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1 ( ISO 15836 )" by DCMI. The "DCMI Metadata Terms" recommend additional fields as well as detailed fields (element refinements) that allow a description or categorization tailored to more specific needs . All fields are optional, can appear several times and, in contrast to other metadata schemes, can be in any order. Document stands here for work or, in general, source .


  • identifier: Unique identification of the document according to a suitable catalog, for example ISBN / ISSN , URL / PURL , URN or DOI , as well as the entry (bibliographicCitation) as to how the document is to be cited .

Technical specifications

  • format: The format specification should provide help with which the document can be displayed or further processed; Size or duration as (extent); Media type (medium) as an indication of the physical data carrier or material, in relation to digital content it makes senseto indicateas MIME type .
  • type: Type or genre of the document, best described with the aid of a term, even more correctly by naming a URI from the " DCMI Type Vocabulary ".
    • Collection of sub-documents, each with its own metadata.
      accrualPolicy: What are the criteria for the collection ?
      accrualMethod: What process is used for the compilation?
      accrualPeriodicity: How often are sub-documents added?
    • Event of a limited duration ("event"), whereby the metadata record is particularly obviously an end in itself and represents something like a calendar entry with reference to the actual source.
    • Sound material ("sound") from voice recordings to sounds up to audio CD, which is intended for direct sound reproduction (see ID3 tag ).
    • Image material ("Image") is used as a generic term for photographs, paintings, prints, maps, diagrams and drawings or notes, as well as for animations, films / videos or television programs. The latter are identified as moving by a second type element ("Moving Image") (cf. MPEG-7 ), the former by a second type element ("Still Image") as unmoved (see IPTC ), or as a mapping of Text-based ("Text").
    • Text-based content ("Text").
    • Real, physical objects ("Physical Object"), but not their images ("Image") or descriptions ("Text").
    • Interactive document ("Interactive Resource") that requires user input, e.g. B. a form.
    • Program ("software") as source text or in executable form, provided it is not an interactive document, but for permanent installation.
    • Data set (“Dataset”) in a special, defined coding, which is intended for further machine processing.
    • Services or services ("Service"), such as a copy shop or a web server.
  • language: language of the document content. A languageabbreviation accordingto ISO 639 is recommended,if necessary supplemented by a country abbreviation according to DIN EN ISO 3166 , which is preceded by a "Hyphen-Minus": for examplegswfor Swiss German ,ger-chfor written German according to Swiss rules,ger-de-byfor Bavarian, or simplygeror more commonlydefor German. The language used in individual elements (e.g. see and alternative ) is not identified by language , but with the appropriate abbreviation in the element itself.

Description of the content

  • title: Title of the document under which it is "formally announced". The display programs like to include thefieldin the title bar. Abbreviations or translations of the title are given as an alternative to the formal title (alternative) .
  • subject: subject of the content in searchable keywords , which at best follow a formal classification scheme.
  • Coverage: Limitation of the area covered by the document in terms of content in general, spatially / locally, for example by names according to TGN , also by specifying coordinates (spatial) or temporal (temporal) in numbers, naming an era or period.
  • description: Brief summary of the content of the document in free text (abstract), a copy of the table of contents or list of components (tableOfContents) or as a reference to a descriptive source. The field is often listed as a "comment" in dialogues by processing programs.

Persons and rights

  • creator: According to DCMI, the name of the person or organization who is primarily responsible for the creation of the document, i.e. the responsible author or creator (see source, contributor and publisher ) of the document in its current version. This should, but does not have to, be a natural person .
  • publisher: Name of the publishing authority, typically the publisher or editor. Again, it does not have to, but the responsible natural person should be named.
  • contributor: Name of each additional person who contributed to or was responsible for the creation of the document.
  • rights: Information to clarify the rights that are held in the document or that must be observed in relation to this, as direct information, in the form of a reference (URI) to license conditions (license) or rights exploiters. Under (accessRights) the security status of the document is specified and who has or may have access to it.


  • source: Refers (see above identifier ) to a document from which the currently described document was derived in whole or in part.
  • relation: Refers (see above identifier ) to a document with which the described document is related.
    If the first document is cited or the like, it is referenced by the document described (references) ; conversely, what is described is referenced by the referenced (isReferencedBy).
    If the referenced was derived from the referencing entity while retaining the content, the latter i. See only one format for the description
    (hasFormat); conversely, the end of the referencing is only a format of the referenced (isFormatOf).
    If the referenced is contained logically or physically in the referencing party, the referencing party has it as a component (hasPart) or only a version thereof (hasVersion); conversely, the referencing part or version of the former is (isPartOf) or (isVersionOf).
    When the former is replaced by the latter (replaces); vice versa (isReplacedBy).
    If the referenced is required by the referring party as a prerequisite for its functionality (requires); vice versa (isRequiredBy). Reference
    can be made in (ConformsTo) toa standard of a norm which the described document
    complies with.

Life cycle

  • date: A characteristic date or a period of time in the life cycle of the document, meaningfully in notation according to DIN ISO 8601 as YYYY-MM-DD, also in the sense of processing notes and definitely also directed into the future. In case of doubt, the date of the last document change. Otherwise the relevant date regarding copyright (dateCopyrighted), "created on" (created), "submitted on" (dateSubmitted), "changed on" (modified), "received on" (dateAccepted), "published on" (issued) , Available from to” (available), “entered into force on, valid from to” (valid).

Applications from Dublin Core

Dublin Core metadata can for example be represented with RDF / XML . They are part of documents in the standardized OpenDocument format . Another sample application is RSS 1.0.

In normal web pages written in HTML , Dublin Core metadata can be metaspecified with the general element in the document header. As an indication of the namespace used, "DC." for the core elements or "DCTERMS." for refinements. It makes sense to first index the reference definition of the schema used.


<head profile="http://dublincore.org/documents/dcq-html/">
  <title>Dublin Core</title>
  <link rel="schema.DC"      href="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" />
  <link rel="schema.DCTERMS" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" />
  <meta name="DC.format"        scheme="DCTERMS.IMT"      content="text/html" />
  <meta name="DC.type"          scheme="DCTERMS.DCMIType" content="Text" />
  <meta name="DC.title"         content="Dublin Core" />
  <meta name="DC.publisher"     content="Jimmy Wales" />
  <meta name="DC.subject"       content="Dublin Core Metadaten-Elemente, Anwendungen" />
  <meta name="DC.creator"       content="Björn G. Kulms" />
  <meta name="DCTERMS.license"  scheme="DCTERMS.URI" content="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html" />
  <meta name="DCTERMS.rightsHolder" content="Wikimedia Foundation Inc." />
  <meta name="DCTERMS.modified" scheme="DCTERMS.W3CDTF" content="2006-03-08" />

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. A link to this data set can be found here: http://lccn.loc.gov/38020780 , accessed on December 27, 2014.