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Endosomes (Gr. Endo = "inside" and soma = "body") are vesicles of animal and plant cells that arise during endocytosis . They are among the organelles of the cell. Endosomes are viewed as a pre-lysosomal intermediate stage , a distinction being made between early and late endosomes. A retromer- mediated sorting of membrane proteins takes place . Early endosomes are located on the cell periphery, late endosomes are more in the area of ​​the nucleus . Acidification by special proton pumps causes the molecules bound in the endosomes to detach from the respective membrane receptors . These receptors can be discharged and transported back to the cell membrane in order to be available for a further endocytotic process.

Endolysosomes are created by the fusion of an endosome with a lysosome , a vesicle that contains degrading enzymes. Proteins are broken down in the endolysosomes ; they represent a late compartment of the endocytotic pathway.


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