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Development in the global production of ferromanganese, according to the process.

Ferromanganese is a master alloy made from iron , manganese and carbon .


A. Pourcel in Génie Civil, 1885 Vol. 7, attributes the discovery of the technical ferromanganese OE Prieger, which in 1866 in Bonn melted pyrolusite , charcoal and fried iron in a graphite crucible . Pourcel then carried out the same method in Terrenoire in 1868 and in 1887 Hadfield announced the manufacture of ferromanganese in crucibles in England. However, as early as 1863 Henderson had melted a mirror iron with 17 to 36% manganese in a SM furnace at the Phoenix Foundry in Glasgow from a mixture of manganese carbonates, iron oxides and charcoal or coke powder. A little later, Pourcel started from rich natural manganese oxides and has been producing a ferromanganese with 70 to 80% manganese in the SM furnace since 1869. A decisive step forward to the large-scale production of ferromanganese was made by Pourcel in Terrenoire (France) and Gautier in Pyle (South Wales) in 1875, who at almost the same time first made ferromanganese in a blast furnace. Pourcel succeeded in producing ferromanganese alloys with 60, 70 and 80% manganese in a blast furnace. The extraction of blast furnace ferromanganese in Germany was started by Phoenix in 1877, followed by Gutehoffnungshütte in 1889.


Ferromanganese works in Brens (Cee), Spain

The production takes place by smelting iron and manganese ores, mostly in a smelting reduction furnace (also called electric low- shaft furnace , English Submerged Arc Furnace (SAF) ) and a smaller part in a blast furnace .

For the production of high-quality ferromanganese, the ore should have the highest possible manganese content with low iron and minimal phosphorus contents, since when smelting in the blast furnace the iron is almost completely reduced, the phosphorus largely, but the manganese at most 80%.


The manganese content of ferromanganese is between 30 and 80%, the carbon content mostly between 6 and 8%. Commercially available ferromanganese has about 75 to 82% manganese and about 7% carbon. Its melting point is around 1250 ° C, the specific weight is 7.1 g / cm 3 . A distinction is also made between ferromanganese carbure (75–80% Mn, 6–8% C), ferromanganese affine (75–90% Mn, 0.5–2% C), ferromanganese suraffine (80–95% Mn , 0-0.5% C) and ferromanganese silicon (58-78% Mn, 0-2% C, 15-35% Si).

Iron-manganese alloys with a lower manganese content are:


Ferromanganese is mainly used as an alloy additive for the production of other iron alloys and steels containing manganese , as a deoxidizer and for the recarburization of iron melts.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b c d Robert Durrer, Georg Volkert: Metallurgy of ferro-alloys . Springer-Verlag, 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-80579-0 , p. 393 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  2. Anonymous: The fabrication of iron manganese and copper manganese according to Dr. OE Prieger in Bonn. In: Polytechnisches Journal . 177, 1865, pp. 303-306.
  3. a b c Werner Gocht: Handbook of metal markets: ore deposits, metal extraction, metal use, pricing, trading regulations . Springer-Verlag, 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-86964-8 , p. 78 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  4. Heinz Siegel: The electric steel process furnace construction, electrical engineering, metallurgy and economics According to FT Sisco “The Manufacture of Electric Steel” . Springer-Verlag, 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-92564-1 , p. 215 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  5. Paul Reinglass: Chemical Technology of Alloys With the exception of the iron-carbon alloys . Springer-Verlag, 2013, ISBN 978-3-662-29261-7 , pp. 497 ( limited preview in Google Book search).