Trade Marketing includes the stand-alone marketing of commercial enterprises with the aim of a market-oriented corporate governance. In contrast to the marketing of the manufacturers, for which retail companies are objects of sales-market-oriented measures, in retail marketing the retail companies are the subjects of independent marketing aimed at several markets.
The term “trade marketing” was first introduced into the economic debate in 1974 by Hans-Otto Schenk in the essay “Plea for independent trade marketing” . Today, more than 50 German-language textbooks and monographs already have the term trade marketing in their title (as of November 2017). In Anglo-Saxon literature, the term was adapted as retail marketing and wholesale marketing .
In practice, the term trade marketing is sometimes used in a somewhat misleading way for manufacturers' marketing relating to trade; The term trade marketing is appropriate for this terminology .
Retail marketing as an independent, company-specific marketing of retail companies is geared towards four markets . Here referred to paragraph marketing all measures of a trading company , on purchase decisions of potential customers are directed, and procurement marketing all measures to selling decisions are directed to the supplier. Other, partly specific measures of trade marketing concern the relationships with the competitive market ( competitive marketing ) and in the so-called internal market, i. H. within your own business premises ( internal marketing ). While the exchange relationships between manufacturers and retailers in general marketing theory are naturally only seen and intensively researched from the manufacturer's point of view (sales marketing), the analogous question from the retailer's point of view (procurement marketing) is not yet valued with the same scientific penetration.
The specifics of retail marketing lie in
- the permanent research, design and control of four markets: sales market, procurement market, competitive market and internal market as well as the use of specific marketing instruments in all four markets (see below),
- Retail-specific decision-making objects (e.g. choice of type of business , choice of business location and internal locations, product range design , deployment of sales staff, shop design and product presentation),
- Trade-specific methods (demoscopic, ecoscopic and experimental trade market research; trade psychology ; short-term and comparative success control, e.g. of trade brands and special campaigns ; creation of supplier and customer profiles, etc.), also specific methods for small and medium-sized enterprises ,
- diverse interdisciplinary links (business law, urban planning, computer science, psychology, etc.),
- the suitability for differentiation as sectoral trade marketing (wholesale and foreign trade, retail and sales representative marketing; mail order marketing, online trade marketing; steel trade marketing; department store marketing; group marketing and so on) and for differentiation according to branches, types of business, company sizes, legal forms, locations, etc.,
- highly complex and dynamic decision-making problems (thousands of articles in the range ; close reaction to competitors; psychostrategic and tactical trade controlling, etc.) and
- the equality of tactical and strategic decisions in commercial practice, which is easily overlooked in theory given the dominance of strategic marketing planning.
The marketing instruments in the four sub-markets include:
- Product range policy
- Product policy (for private labels )
- Pricing policy
- Sales financing
- Service policy (customer service)
- operational location policy and
- Communication policy
- Procurement-side assortment and product policy
- Order policy
- procurement-side pricing policy
- Procurement financing
- Supplier service ( supplier relationship management ) and
- Procurement communication
- Competitive market research
- horizontal community advertising
- Exchange of experience
- Company comparison
- Colleague delivery
- Shop design
- Presentation and placement of goods
- Optimization of structure and process organization
- Staff training and motivation
- Complaint management
- Incoming goods inspection.
This set of instruments can be transferred analogously to inter-company, joint or cooperative trade marketing by trade association groups and modified accordingly.
In the course of the concentration and cooperation processes in retail and the resulting change in retail from a mere sales agent for the manufacturer to an equal, powerful, distinguished and emancipated market partner, the importance of retail marketing has grown. It takes into account peculiarities of the trade such as the location, the proximity to the customer, the importance of the trade in the value chain , the formation of associations (horizontal, vertical and conglomerate cooperation) and the product range as a "core function of the trade" ( Rudolf Seyffert ).
The importance of retail marketing is particularly evident in the range policy of retail companies. The selection and amalgamation of goods from a large number of manufacturers and suppliers to form a goods and services network leads to several effects that are desirable for the market economy: In macroeconomic terms , the trading performance consists in the fact that the goods are brought into a direct competitive relationship as a result of the manufacturers' efforts to avoid competition (unique selling proposition) ( Product competition) and free calculation. From a business point of view , the decisions made by trade management are the more successful the more they are adapted to the possibilities or requirements of all four markets. Trade marketing wants to contribute to this commercial commercial service - the optimal combination of selected, externally produced goods with own services and their exploitation.
- Ursula Hansen: Sales and procurement marketing of the retail trade , 2nd edition, Göttingen 1990, ISBN 3-525-03154-8 .
- Roland Mattmüller / Ralph Tunder: Strategisches Handelsmarketing , Munich 1994, ISBN 3-8006-2359-5 .
- Lothar Müller-Hagedorn / Martin Natter: Retail Marketing . 5th edition. Stuttgart / Berlin / Cologne / Mainz 2011.
- R. Olbrich, D. Battenfeld: trade marketing . In: Manfred Bruhn, Christian Homburg (ed.): Gabler Lexikon Marketing . Wiesbaden 2001, pp. 252f.
- Hans-Otto Schenk: Retail Marketing . In: The large lexicon for trade and sales, ed. by Bernd Falk, 2nd edition, Landsberg 1982, pp. 324–328, ISBN 3-478-24159-6 .
- Hans-Otto Schenk: Psychology in Commerce. Decision-making bases for trade marketing . 2nd Edition. Munich / Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58379-3 .
- Hendrik Schröder: Retail Marketing . 2nd Edition. Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3834934246 .
- First scientific justification of trade marketing (PDF; 4.8 MB)
- Bibliography of textbooks and monographs on trade marketing
- See Hans-Otto Schenk: Marktwirtschaftslehre des Handels , Wiesbaden 1991, pp. 200f., ISBN 3-409-13379-8
- FfH messages . Issue 7/1974, pp. 1-6.
- Roland Mattmüller / Ralph Tunder: Strategisches Handelsmarketing , Munich 2004, p. 120.
- Hans-Otto Schenk: Retail marketing for small and medium-sized companies based on the four-market approach , in: Yearbook of KMU research 2000, ed. by Jörn-Axel Meyer, Munich 2000, pp. 373-389
- Hans-Otto Schenk: Marktwirtschaftslehre des Handels , Wiesbaden 1991, p. 206ff. Contains a basic system of the instruments of trade marketing and their strategic and tactical application possibilities .
- Bruno Tietz: On the emancipation of retail marketing from manufacturer marketing , in: Retail Marketing, ed. by Werner Hasitschka / Harald Hruschka, Berlin-New York 1984, pp. 53–79, ISBN 3-11-009877-6 .