Cerebral cortex

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Fig. 1. Convex lateral part of the cerebral mantle seen from the outside
Fig. 2. Coronary section through the brain immediately in front of the bridge : the basal ganglia and cerebral ventricle are encased in white and gray matter

The cortex - also cortex or cortex ( latin cortex bark ' ), cerebral mantle or pallium (lat. Pallium , Coat' ) - is a collection of nerve cells , which as a thin layer of bark on the outer edge of the upper and cerebellum is located. The cerebral cortex is called in Latin cortex cerebri , the cerebellar cortex cerebelli .


Seen from the outside, the cerebral mantle of the cerebrum consists of a convex lateral part and a flat medial part. This represents the insides of both hemispheres, i.e. it contains those parts of the cerebral mantle that form the longitudinal fissure . The transition from the convex to the flat part is formed by the jacket edge, which z. B. can be seen when looking at both halves of the brain (Fig. 1.).

The cerebral cortex is not only visible macroscopically , but above all a microscopically definable section of the brain. The cerebral cortex mainly contains "gray nerve cells" ( substantia grisea ) on the surface of the brain organ (the winding, dark gray border zones in Fig. 2; see also map of the cerebral cortex ). The thickness of the gray matter varies between 1.5 and 4.5 mm. In contrast, the deeper parts of the brain contain the white medullary mantle ( substantia alba ). This “further coat” is sometimes called a marrow camp . It mainly consists of the long nerve cell processes, the neurites . The gray and white coats together enclose the basal ganglia and the ventricles .


The relationships between pulp and bark are basically similar here, but the drawing of the distribution of pulp and bark through the tree of life ( arbor vitae ) must be illustrated.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Duden online: cortex and cortex
  2. The associated adjective is cortical , technically also cortical ; see. cortical at Duden online. The “mixed” cortical spelling should not be used.
  3. ^ Duden online: Pallium
  4. Alfred Benninghoff , Kurt Goerttler: Textbook of Human Anatomy . 7th edition. tape 3 : nervous system, skin and sensory organs. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich 1964, p. 227 .
  5. Helmut Ferner : Anatomy of the nervous system and the human sense organs . 2nd Edition. Reinhardt, Munich 1964, p. 15, 136 f .