Alfred Benninghoff

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alfred Benninghoff (born May 21, 1890 in Emmelsum , † February 18, 1953 in Marburg ) was a German anatomist . His main work was a textbook on human anatomy that was continued for decades.


Benninghoff studied medicine at the universities of Heidelberg and Munich from 1909 . In 1919 he received his doctorate in Heidelberg with the text About relative incontinentia urinae in women and their treatment with bladder and urethral ruffling. He then worked as a prosector at the University of Marburg , and in 1921 he completed his habilitation with a thesis on the comparative anatomy of the amphibian heart. In 1924 Benninghoff moved to Kiel University , where he became a professor in 1927. In 1941 Benninghoff joined the NSDAP and returned to Marburg as a full professor, where he also held the position of Gau lecturer leader. An earlier appointment was not made according to a negative political assessment. An assessment by the National Socialist German Lecturer Association (NSDDB) came to the conclusion that Benninghoff's view of a separation between science and politics was not acceptable. In his denazification after the end of the war, Benninghoff argued that refusing membership in the party and affiliated university organizations would have endangered his life's scientific work. From 1950 to 1952 he was rector of the university.


Benninghoff dealt among other things with the morphology of the connective and supporting tissue , especially the cartilage , and the blood vessels. The Benninghoff tendons , smooth muscle fibers in the wall of elastic arteries, especially the aorta , are named after him.

His main work is a textbook on human anatomy published for the first time in 1939 in three volumes. These volumes are presented with a preference for functional relationships. The work continued until the beginning of the 21st century.


Alfred Benninghoff had been a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina , the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and various NS organizations since 1942 : the National Socialist German Medical Association (NSDÄB, from 1940) and the National Socialist German Lecturer Association (NSDDB, from 1941), as well as the National Socialist People's Welfare and supporting member of the NS-Fliegerkorps .

Works (selection)

  • Relative incontinentia urinae in women and their treatment with constriction of the bladder and urethra. Heidelberg 1919 (dissertation).
  • Contributions to the comparative anatomy and development history of the amphibian heart . Marburg 1921 (habilitation thesis).
  • Human anatomy textbook . JF Lehmanns Verlag, Munich / Berlin 1939.
  • Blood vessels and heart, lymph vessels and lymphatic organs, spleen. In: Wilhelm v. Möllendorff (Hrsg.): Manual of the microscopic anatomy of humans. Volume 6, Springer, Berlin 1930.
  • The biological field theory. Heidelberg 1944.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Ernst Klee : The dictionary of persons on the Third Reich . Who was what before and after 1945? S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-10-039309-0 , p. 38.
  2. ^ A b c G. Aumüller, K. Grundmann: Anatomy during the Third Reich. 2002, p. 300.
  3. ^ Alfred Benninghoff in the Kiel List of Scholars , accessed on January 13, 2020.
  4. ^ Ernst Klee: The dictionary of persons on the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945? 2nd updated edition. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, p. 38.