Jewish community of Loštice

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The front wall of the synagogue in Loštice

The Jewish community in the Moravian village of Loštice in the Czech Republic existed from the middle of the 16th century until the Second World War.


The first Jewish residents in Loštice are recorded in 1544; Towards the end of the 16th century, a synagogue made of wood and a Jewish cemetery are reported in the community; a board of directors of the Jewish community and a ritual bath are mentioned from 1581. In the middle of the 17th century, the community took in Jewish refugees from Ukraine and families who had been expelled from Lower Austria. After the Jewish community grew to 483 people (17 percent of the population) in 1848, the number of its members continued to decline.

A Jewish quarter as an independent administrative unit existed in Loštice northeast of the main square from 1581, and in 1677 there were already 26 houses. On June 5 and 6, 1727, the Jewish residents were relocated to a new ghetto, west of the center. After 1790, some houses and the newly built synagogue (also made of wood) were destroyed by a major fire, after which a new stone synagogue was built in 1805. After another major fire in 1928, the burned down houses were modernized. An independent administrative community later existed between 1850 and 1919.

On June 22, 1942, the 59 Jews still living in Loštice were first brought to Olomouc, four days later with the transport AAf to the Theresienstadt concentration camp and from there to other extermination camps, where most of them were murdered. The last rabbi in the community was Berthold Oppenheim , who replaced the outgoing Rabbi Izrael Günzig in 1918 ; Oppenheim remained a rabbi until 1939, when he was murdered in the Treblinka extermination camp in 1942 .

Population development

After the first Jewish settlers were mentioned in 1544, the Jewish community peaked in 1848 and then declined until it was wiped out at the beginning of World War II. The population of the Jewish community in Loštice developed as follows:

1583 6 families
1677 16 families
circa 1680 17 families
1727 328 people in 80 families
1800/1820 350 people in 70 families
1848 483 people about 17 percent of the population
1869 284 people
1880 280 people about 10 percent of the population
circa 1900 approx. 115 people about 4 percent of the population
1910 55 people
1921 75 people
1930 approx. 55 people
1938 6 families
1943 no

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Jiří Fiedler: Loštice , Project Holocaust.CZ, online at: / ...  ( page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  2. Synagoga v Lošticích , description on, online on: / ...
  3. a b LOSTICE: Sumperk, Moravia , International Jewish Cemetery Project, online at: / ...
  4. Loštice , section Loštická synagoga , info from Zmizelí sousedé (Disappeared Neighbors), project of the Jewish Museum Prague, online at: / ... ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  5. PhDr. Berthold Oppenheim , information from the Olomouc Jewish Community, online at: / ...
  6. From the history of the Jewish communities in the German-speaking area , keyword Loschitz (Moravia), online at: / ...

See also