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Under cadence ( Italian cadenza , medieval Latin cadentia "dropping" of Latin cadere "fall") is understood in the Verslehre the metric-rhythmic figure of Versschlusses , that the last syllables of the verse from the last accented syllable of. The term was introduced by Andreas Heusler as part of the time metrics he developed based on the musical cadence concept.

Outside of the Heusler system, the New High German verse distinguishes between three forms of closure due to the number of syllables in the closure :

  • monosyllabic (also masculine or blunt ) closure: closure with a stressed syllable, e.g. B. "Is the shape, burned from clay"
  • two-syllable (also female or sounding ) closure: closure with an unstressed syllable, e.g. B. "Solidly walled in the earth"
  • three-syllable (also rich or sliding ) closure: closure with two unstressed syllables, e.g. B. "painful, march-like, singing"

The terms “male”, “female”, “blunt”, “sounding” etc. correspond to the common names for rhymes of the appropriate length, whereby the cadence is independent of the end rhyme, that is, a non-rhymed verse can also have a female cadence, for example . The rich rhyme is very rare as an end rhyme in German, just as rare is a rich cadenza, since the verse in dactylic verses usually ends catalectically , that is, the last dactyl —◡◡ is shortened to —◡.

Cadence in the clock metric

In Heusler's system, each verse (which he calls a bar series) is based on a bar scheme. As the clock is referred to the section of a lift (stressed syllable, unlike decrease) until the next lift. The cadence is then initially differentiated according to whether the last bar is paused at the end or not. A distinction is made between:

  • full cadence : cadence fills the last measure with the main tone syllable
  • sounding cadence : cadence fills the last bar with a secondary syllable at most, main tone syllable in the penultimate bar
  • Blunt cadence : last bar is not linguistically realized (paused), main tone syllable in the penultimate bar

A distinction is also made according to the number of syllables and the form of the stress (male = main stress on a short syllable; female = main stress on a long syllable), so that there are 8 different basic types of cadence in Heusler's system:

Basic type Number of syllables Emphasis Scheme
full monosyllabic … | × ́ ^ ‖ 
two-syllable male … |    ^ ‖ 
Female … | × ́ × ‖ 
sounding two-syllable … |  ──  ́ | × ̀ ^ ‖ 
three-syllable … | × ́ × | × ̀ ^ ‖ 
dull monosyllabic … | × ́ ^ | ^ ^ ‖ 
two-syllable male … |    ^ | ^ ^ ‖ 
Female … | × ́ × | ^ ^ ‖ 

The example given in the “Scheme” column shows the last or last and penultimate measure in the metric notation developed by Heusler . It refers to a bar length of two moras , musically corresponding to a 2/4 bar.

It should be noted that the terms “blunt” and “sounding” in Heusler's time metrics and the same terms in the New High German verse do not match. It therefore makes more sense to speak of “monosyllabic closure” in the New High German verse instead of, for example, “male cadence”. The same applies to the designation male or female cadence, which Heusler uses differently.

In addition, Heusler is not the scientist who developed classifications for the cadences, especially in Middle High German poetry. Carl Kraus , Kurt Plenio , Ulrich Pretzel and others have developed from Heusler system different classifications, it means the female, two-syllable cadenza at Kraus and Plenio "easy sounding" at Pretzel "female full", etc. However, in the medieval studies despite some Criticism still uses Heusler's system today, but due to the resulting confusion of terms, there are some uncertainties.