Climax tree species
Climax tree species are tree species that represent the final stage ( climax stage ) of a natural sequence ( succession ) of a forest. These forests are known as final forests . Without human influence, beech forests would mainly be found in Central Europe today.
Example of a sequence
Annual , then perennial herbaceous plants first settle on a disaster area , followed by bushes and then pioneer tree species settle . These are replaced by semi-shade tree species, which in turn are replaced by climax tree species (mostly shade tree species). When these die off or disappear due to disasters (fire, wind break, ...), the cycle starts all over again.
Tree species in Central Europe
- Oak ( Quercus )
- Common beech ( Fagus sylvatica )
- Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) in higher mountain areas
- European silver fir ( Abies alba ) in higher mountains
Almost every tree species can appear as a climax tree species. This strongly depends on the location. In a bog z. B. the birch can be a pioneer and climax tree at the same time.