San Francisco Conference

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The San Francisco Conference , also known as the United Nations Conference on International Organization , took place from April 25, 1945 to June 26, 1945.

The conference worked out the Charter of the United Nations , which was signed by 50 allied states on June 26, 1945 .

After the declaration of the Atlantic Charter by the United States of America and Great Britain in 1941, the Moscow Declaration of the Four Powers resulted in the cooperation of the Soviet Union and the Republic of China in the new peace order after the Second World War . A general organization for the maintenance of peace and international security, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states, should be created as soon as possible.

During the Second World War, the peoples who had allied themselves against Germany, Italy, Japan and the states dependent on them understood and described themselves as the “United Nations”. These alliances were to become an organization for all the nations of the world.

After the inclusion of France in the circle of the main powers, the last disputed questions of the Charter of the United Nations could be settled at the Conference of Yalta in February 1945, so that the Charter could finally be adopted at the Conference of San Francisco.

All participants in the conference are considered founding members of the United Nations . However, India and New Zealand were still dependent on Great Britain, the Philippines on the USA. In recognition of the immense sacrifices made in the struggle against the Axis powers, the Soviet Socialist Republics of Ukraine and Belarus also took part as formally independent countries after their constitutions had been amended. This effectively gave the Soviet Union three seats at the United Nations.

The enemy state clauses of the Charter stipulated that the "enemy states", ie Germany, Japan and their allied states, should be included at the latest when peace treaties are concluded. At the Potsdam conference a few weeks later, it was accordingly decided that the German people should be given the opportunity “in due course to take their place among the free and peaceful peoples of the world”.

A memorial ceremony for President Franklin D. Roosevelt , who died before the conference began, was held under the coastal redwoods at Muir Woods National Monument .

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Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ernst Deuerlein : Potsdam 1945. Ende und Anfang , Cologne 1970, p. 13; Klaus Hüfner : United Nations . In: Wichard Woyke (Ed.): Handwortbuch Internationale Politik. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1995, pp. 430-438, here p. 430; Helmut Volger: History of the United Nations. Oldenbourg, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-71122-6 , pp. 4–20 (accessed from De Gruyter Online); Manuela Scheuermann: The United Nations: An Introduction. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2014, pp. 21–28.
  2. Quoted from Ernst Deuerlein: Potsdam 1945. Ende und Anfang , Cologne 1970, p. 98.