Multiple substance use
Multiple substance use , also known colloquially as mixed use , is a form of drug use that involves two or more psychotropic substances .
Spread and examples
Figures on the frequency of mixed use, especially in combination with illegal drugs, are only available sporadically. However, it can be assumed that in very many cases in which drugs are consumed, more than one substance is included. Even the simultaneous use of alcohol and tobacco is mixed consumption. A study published in Germany in 2004 showed that 87.8% of those questioned who had experience with alcohol or cannabis had also tried the combination of both (see table on mixed consumption).
Reasons for multiple substance use can be complex. On the one hand, the use of a certain drug can spontaneously create a “desire” for other substances, on the other hand, there is also targeted mixed consumption in the hope of achieving a special effect. For some combinations, users have developed their own terms, for example for the simultaneous use of MDMA and LSD , which is known as candy flip , or the combination of cocaine and heroin , which is called speedball .
Drug counseling centers usually advise against mixed consumption of any kind, since in most cases the individual risks of the drugs add up, but sometimes also increase.
|Substance combination||Possible mixed consumption-specific effects||Mixed use experience among respective users of the single drugs (study 2004)||Rating by consumers as "good" (2004 study)||swell|
|Alcohol and tobacco||no information||no information|
|Alcohol and cannabis||87.8%||36.6%|
|Alcohol and MDMA (Ecstasy)||
|Alcohol and LSD||
|Alcohol and amphetamine (speed)||77.6%||49.8%|
|Alcohol and cocaine||
For cocaine use after alcohol use:
|Alcohol and heroin||
|Cannabis and MDMA (Ecstasy)||
|Cannabis and amphetamine (speed)||
|Cannabis and methamphetamine (crystal)||
||no information||no information|
|Cannabis and cocaine||
For cocaine use after cannabis use:
|MDMA (Ecstasy) and LSD ("Candyflip")||
|MDMA (Ecstasy) and Amphetamine (Speed)||
|Amphetamine (Speed) and LSD||
Alternative definition of terms and classification
- According to ICD-10 , multiple substance use is a form of drug use in which two or more psychotropic substances are consumed and no substance alone dominates the use or only one or none of the substances is known. At the same time, no statement is made about the presence or extent of health disorders or a specific clinical appearance.
- "Multiple substance use occurs when the substance is absorbed in a chaotic and indiscriminate manner, without a particular substance or group of substances predominating."
With negative connotation and stigmatizing , polytoxicomania (from the Greek: μανία manía = frenzy) and multiple substance abuse are sometimes spoken of. In contrast, multiple dependence describes an existing dependency syndrome when several psychotropic substances are taken. The DSM-IV calls for the repeated use of substances from at least three substance groups (excluding caffeine and nicotine ) over a period of at least twelve months (for the diagnosis of polysubstance dependence ) , whereby the dependency criteria apply to all substances, but not to a specific group, must be met. A renaming to Polysubstance Use-Disorder is currently being discussed.
Particular dangers during pregnancy
If mothers with multiple addictions also consume multiple substances during pregnancy , there is a high probability that the child will be born with physical and / or mental disabilities . In Germany, three out of every 1000 children born are children of women with multiple addictions. Through the use of heroin, cocaine and alcohol, for example, the following faults may occur in children: delayed crawling stage , delayed walker age , delayed language development , ADD / ADHD , dyscalculia , dyslexia . In addition, the following was observed with multiple substance use during pregnancy: congenital malformations , increased susceptibility to infection , developmental delay , learning disorders , sudden infant death syndrome and consequences of obstetric complications.
- Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA): Beware of mixed consumption , accessed on October 13, 2015
- Gundula Barsch, Joachim Eul, Tibor Harrach (2004): Understanding mixed drug use differently - prevalences and consumption ratings , in: and Wiener Zeitschrift für Suchtforschung, vol. 27, 2004 No. 4 , Pp. 49–6 and in: Konturen, issue 6-2006, pp. 8–15, accessed online on October 13, 2015
- Landescaritasverband Bayern eV: Mixed consumption , accessed on October 13, 2015
- SZL Suchtzentrum gGmbH: Substance information LSD , accessed on October 13, 2015
- SSL addiction gGmbH: substance information Speed , accessed on 13 October 2015
- SZL Suchtzentrum gGmbH: Substance information cocaine , accessed on October 13, 2015
- SSL addiction gGmbH: Substance Information heroin , accessed on 13 October 2015
- SZL Suchtzentrum gGmbH: Substance information cannabis , accessed on October 13, 2015
- Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA): Description of consumption for the combinations of consumption: cannabis - cocaine - alcohol , accessed on October 14, 2015
- SSL addiction gGmbH: Substance Information MDMA , accessed on 13 October 2015
- Landescaritasverband Bayern eV: Substance information LSD , accessed on October 14, 2015
- Berger, Mathias (Ed.): Mental Illnesses - Clinic and Therapy , p. 382; Elsevier, 3rd edition 2009
- American Psychiatric Association, DSM-5 Development, 2010: Polysubstance-Use Disorder ( Memento of October 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Ruthard Stachowske ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Retrieved May 29, 2014