Organizzazione di Vigilanza e Repressione dell'Antifascismo
The Organizzazione di Vigilanza e Repressione dell'Antifascismo (Eng .: "Organization for the Monitoring and Combating of Antifascism", OVRA for short ) was an Italian secret police . It emerged in 1927 from the Political Police Department of the State Police . For Benito Mussolini's fascist regime, it was a crucial instrument for securing power. Above all, it persecuted communists and anti-fascists , but also listened to ordinary citizens in order to sound out the “mood among the people”. The organization went under with the fall of Mussolini in September 1943, but was partly re-established under a different name in the Repubblica Sociale Italiana . After the liberation of Italy , a commission of inquiry was set up in 1946 to review both the activities of the political police and that of the OVRA. The results of this commission were unsatisfactory.
What exactly is hidden behind the abbreviation OVRA remained in the dark for a long time. In addition to the designation listed here, Opera Volontaria di Repressione Antifascista (“Voluntary work to combat anti-fascism”) and Organo di Vigilanza dei Reati Antistatali (“Organ for the supervision of subversive crimes”) are given as possible explanations.
- Franco Fucci: Le polizie di Mussolini . Mursia, Milan 1985.
- History of OVRA on treccani.it (Italian)
- History of the intelligence services in Italy on treccani.it (Italian)
- Presentation on the website of the partisan association ANPI Brindisi (Italian)